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燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:趙立新(簡介並寄信)
編輯:侯嘉玨(簡介並寄信)

期末考試學習指導
Final Examination Study Guide

第一部分
Part I

這部分期末考試將包括辨別型的問題(出自講座、閱讀及影片),要求你做兩件事情:首先,辨別問題中的內容;然後,解釋其歷史重要性。你的回答不必多,一段即可。要具體而明確,提供時間、相關的地理位置、及該內容具有重要的歷史意義的原因。如果是一個人,解釋他/她因什麼有名,為什麼是重要的;如果是一個概念,指出這是誰提出的(如果可能)並舉例說明;它描述的是什麼特定的歷史事件或時刻?如果是一件事情,辨別出,並舉例說明它是如何使用的以及為何它具有重要意義。我們將根據與你聽、讀、看的認真程度相關的事實進行評分。

This part of the final exam will consist of identification-type questions (drawn from the lectures, readings, and films) in which you will be asked to do two things: first, to identify the item in question; second, to explain its historical significance. Your response need not be long. One paragraph will do. Be specific and concrete, providing dates, geographical location/s if relevant, and the reason/s why the item is historically important. If the item is a person, explain what he/she is known for and why it is important. If it is a concept, indicate whose idea it was (if possible) and provide an example; what specific historical event or moment does it describe? If it is a thing, identify it and provide an example of how it was used and why it was significant. In grading these questions, we will be looking for evidence that you have listened, read, and watched carefully.

「復活翌日」
"The Day After Trinity"
John Fitch
工業的溫合專制主義
Industrial paternalism
Long Island Parkway
一天五美元
Five-dollar Day
Geigy
Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. Merrimack河
Merrimack River
Washington Roebling 耕地的神話
The Agrarian Myth
Ferdinand de Lessups John Stevens
Morrill土地法案 (1862)
Morrill Land Grant Act (1862)
原子能委員會
Atomic Energy Commission
Samuel Slater Oliver Evans
時間-運動研究
Time-motion Studies
「Waltham-Lowell系統」
The "Waltham-Lowell system"
兵工廠實習
Armory Practice
波士頓製造公司
Boston Manufacturing Company
布希的前沿論文
Bush's frontier thesis
Eli Terry
Simeon North John H. Hall
克林頓的「大溝」
Clinton's 'big ditch'
Elmer Sperry
北海輪船
The North River Steamboat
調查法案(1824)
The General Survey Act (1824)
Kelly-轉爐煉鋼法
Kelly-Bessemer process
4英尺,8.5英寸
4 feet, 8.5 inches
Col. George Bomford 「製造商的美國體系」
"American system of manufactures"
Duryea兄弟
Duryea brothers
Col. Albert Pope
NACA 「物理學者的戰爭」
"the physicist's war"
曼哈頓計畫
Manhattan Project
旋風/半自動地面防空警備系統
Whirlwind/SAGE
Vannevar Bush 阿波羅計畫
Project Apollo
DARPA Edwin H. Armstrong
KDKA Pittsburgh 「戰爭的潛伏方式」
"the skulking way of war"
Tench Coxe 「讓我們的工廠保留在歐洲」"let our workshops remain in Europe"
「步法/軍人」
"pacing/soldiering"
泰勒主義
Taylorism
福特製
Fordism
1912年無線電通訊法案
Radio Act of 1912
Rachel Carson 底特律的墨索里尼
"the Mussolini of Detroit"
Altair 8800 Steve Wozniak
ARPA網
ARPANET
Eli Whitney的神話
The myth of Eli Whitney
Minie Ball Hawthorne的「神聖的鐵路」
Hawthorne's "Celestial Railroad"
農耕神話
The Agrarian Myth
生鐵
pig iron
手工製品
Artisanal Production
Ames Shovel Co.
Springfield兵工廠
Springfield Armory
Albert Gallatin
「Lowell女孩們」
"Lowell girls"
西點軍校
West Point
Hudson河學校
Hudson River School
「Smooth-it-away先生」,BR>"Mr. Smooth-it-away"
George W. Whistler 「女孩你好」
"hello girls"
福特T型車
Ford Model T
短波通訊
shortwave radio
短波通訊商業法案(1926)
Air Commerce Act (1926)
福特Trimotor
Ford Trimotor
「現代」(1936)
"Modern Times" (1936)
貝爾實驗室
Bell Labs
Gen. Leslie Groves " 「偉大的民主思想武庫」
"the great arsenal of democracy"


Currier & Ives,「帝國主義進程向西部邁進」(1868)
Currier & Ives, "Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way" (1868)
科研與發展辦公室 (OSRD)
Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD)
Kelly法案(1925)
The Kelly Act (1925)


第二部分
Part II

在這一部分,要求你根據下面的問題寫兩篇短文。每篇短文應當組織好,包括簡介和結論。我們希望你提出一個理由充分的論點,並有相應的實例提供支援。

In this part, you will be asked to write two (2) essays that will be drawn from the following questions. Each essay should be composed in a well-organized manner, with an introduction and a conclusion. We expect you to develop a well-reasoned argument supported by specific examples.

1. 下面哪一項對於過去200年的科技變化產生了至關重要的影響:個人發明家/企業家,聯邦政府,還是公司?

1. Which of the following has had the most impact on technological change in the past 200 years of American history: individual inventors/entrepreneurs, the federal government, or corporations?

2. Smith教授不只一次地指出「政府介入/政府淡出」是一種美國經濟中科技變化的重要催化劑。

2. On more than one occasion, Prof. Smith has referred to "government-in/government-out" as an important catalyst of technological change in the American economy.

a. 解釋這一表述的意義是什麼。
a. Explain what this expression means.

b. 舉出至少兩個關於政府介入/政府淡出的方案實例(一個出自19世紀,一個出自20世紀),並解釋每種方案對於美國經濟產生了什麼影響。
b. Provide at least two examples of the govt.-in/govt.out scenario (one from the 19th century, one from the 20th century) and explain specifically how each made a difference to the larger American economy.

3. 在許多美國工業化討論中都有時間及相應的隨時間變化的圖表。分別從工廠主、產業工人、農場家庭和社區商店業主的角度,簡單討論從1800年到1930年這段時間內,時間是如何改變事物的?你發現誰的觀點最能讓人折服?為什麼?[在回答這一問題時,你至少應當使用Lowell工廠、Harpers Ferry兵工廠、鐵路、泰勒主義和福特製作為參考論段。

3. Clocks and time-keeping figure prominently in many discussions of American industrialization. Taking the points of view of the factory master, industrial workers, farm families, and shopkeepers in the community, discuss how increasing time orientation changed things roughly between 1800 and 1930. Whose point of view do you find most compelling? Why? [in responding to this question, you should, at the very least, use the Lowell mills, Harpers Ferry Armory, the railroads, Taylorism, and Fordism as reference points]

4. 什麼叫所謂的「軍工合成」?這一詞語是由何而來的?(同50年前相比)麻省理工學院在何種程度上參與到「軍工合成」之中?記住Langdon Winner的問題,「人工製品有政治因素嗎?」你認為大學研究中的軍工基金會影響到科學及工程發展的本質和結果嗎?如果會,怎樣影響的?如果不會,那又是怎樣?軍工合成的利與弊如何?你贊同軍工合成嗎?為什麼贊同或者為什麼不贊同?[在課堂提供的材料之外,鼓勵同學們查閱麻省理工學院資助研究辦公室年度報告中的相關資料]

4. What is the co-called "military-industrial complex"? How did the phrase come about? To what extent does MIT participate in the MIC today (as opposed to fifty years ago)? Keeping in mind Langdon Winner's question, "Do Artifacts Have Politics," do you think military-industrial funding of university research affects the nature or shape of resulting scientific and engineering developments? How so/how not? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the MIC? Are you in favor of this complex: why or why not? [in addition to the materials assigned in class, you are encouraged to check the annual reports issued by MIT's Office of Sponsored Research for appropriate data]


 
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