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相關閱讀資料

Readings are given below by session along with reading discussion questions provided for this course (PDF).


課程單元 閱讀資料
1 Introduction: The Rise of Modern Science
2 The Culture of Experiment
3 The Enlightenment and Progress Experiment and Enlightenment

Shapin, Steven. "Pump and Circumstance: Robert Boyle's Literary Technology." Social Studies of Science (1984): 481-520.

Condorcet, Marquis de. "The Tenth Stage: The Future Progress of the Human Mind." In Condorcet: Selected Writings. Edited by Keith Michael Baker. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1976, pp. 258-282. ISBN: 0672603810.

Smith, Adam. "Of the Division of Labor." Chapters 1-2 in The Wealth of Nations. London: Penguin, 1986, pp. 107-121. ISBN: 002604079.

Linnaeus, Carl. "Introduction," and "Preface." (1737) In Critica Botanica. London: Ray Society, 1938, pp. xix-xxvii.

———. "Introduction," and "Outline of Mammalia." In A General System of Nature. London: Lackington, Allen, and Co., 1806, pp. 1-9.

McKendrick, Neil. "The Role of Science in the Industrial Revolution." In Science & Culture in the Western Tradition. Edited by John G. Burke. Scottsdale, AZ: Gorsuch Scarisbrick, 1987, pp. 157-159. ISBN: 0897878108.
4 Enlightenment Chemistry and Physics
5 Romantic Science Precision vs. Romance

Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent. "Memoir on the Nature of the Principle which Combines with Metals During their Calcination and Which Increases their Weight," and "Memoir on Combustion in General." In A Source Book in Chemistry: 1400-1900. Edited by Henry M. Leicester and Herbert S. Klickstein. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968, pp. 154, 163-174.

Selections from Thomas Young and Augstin Fresnel on "The Interference and Diffraction of Light." In Great Experiments in Physics. Edited by Morris H. Shamos. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1959, pp. 93-120.

Alder, Ken. "A Revolution to Measure: The Political Economy of the Metric System in France." In The Values of Precision. Edited by M. Norton Wise. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995, pp. 39-71. ISBN: 0691016011.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. "The Experiment as Mediator between Object and Subject," "Polarity," "Theory of Color: Didactic Section," "Dedication, Preface & Introduction," "Part One: Physiological Colors," and "Pathological Colors: A Supplement." In The Collected Works: Scientific Studies. Vol. 12. Edited by Douglas Miller. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987, pp. 11-17, 155-178. ISBN: 351802969X.

Jackson, Myles W. "A Spectrum of Belief: Geothe's 'Republic' Versus Newtonian 'Despotism'." Social Studies of Science 24 (1994): 673-701.
6 Thermodynamics
7 Science and Life Energy and Life

Joule, James. "The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat." In Great Experiments in Physics. Edited by Morris H. Shamos. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1959, pp. 166-183.

Helmholtz, Hermann von. "On the Interaction of Natural Forces." In Science and Culture: Popular and Philosophical Essays. Edited by David Cahan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995, pp. 18-45. ISBN: 0226326594.

Schwann, Theodor. "Theory of the Cells." In Microscopical Researches into the Accordance in the Structure and Growth of Animals and Plants. Translated by Henry Smith. London: Sydenham Society, 1839, 1847, pp. 186-215.

Liebig, Justis von. "Organic Chemistry Applied to Physiology and Pathology." In Animal Chemistry. Cambridge, 1842; reprint, New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1964, pp. 1-23.

Lenoir, Timothy "Social Interests and the Organic Physics of 1847." In Science in Reflection. The Israel Colloquium: Studies in History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Science. Vol. 3. Edited by Edna Ullmann-Margalit. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988, pp. 169-191. ISBN: 9027727120.
8 Empires of Physics
9 Chemistry and Industry Applying Science

Maxwell, James Clerk. "A Dynamical Theory of the Electrical Field." In A Source Book in Physics. Edited by William F. Magie. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965, pp. 528-537.

———. "The Telephone: The Rede Lecture Delivered to the Senate House of the University of Cambridge, 24 May 1878." In Empires of Physics: A Guide to the Exhibition. Cambridge: Whipple Museum of the History of Science, 1993, pp. 15-27. ISBN: 0906271088 .

Mendeleev, Dimitri. "The Relation Between the Properties and Atomic Weights of the Elements." In A Source Book in Chemistry: 1400-1900. Edited by Henry M. Leicester and Herbert S. Klickstein. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952, pp. 438-444.

Schaffer, Simon. "Empires of Physics." In Empires of Physics: A Guide to the Exhibition. Cambridge: Whipple Museum of the History of Science, 1993, pp. 87-111. ISBN: 0906271088 .

Gordin, Michael. "Making Newtons: Mendeleev, Metrology, and the Chemical Ether." Ambix 45, pt. 2 (July 1998): 96-115.
10 Geology, Natural Theology, and Time
11 Evolution Darwinian Revolution

Excerpts from Thomas Malthus, William Paley, Jean Baptiste Lamarck, Charles Lyell, John Herschel, William Whewell, and Alfred Russel Wallace. Darwin: A Norton Critical Edition , 3rd ed. Edited by Philip Appleman. New York: W. W. Norton, 2001, pp. 39-64. ISBN: 0393958493.

Darwin, Charles. Selections from "Origin of Species." In Darwin: A Norton Critical Edition. pp. 95-135, 169-174.

———. Selections from "Descent of Man." In Darwin: A Norton Critical Edition. pp. 230-254.
12 Social Darwinism Social Darwinism

Hofstadter, Richard. "The Vogue of Spencer." In Darwin: A Norton Critical Edition. 1955, pp. 389-395.

Carnegie, Andrew. "The Gospel of Wealth." In Darwin: A Norton Critical Edition. 1900, pp. 396-398.

Kropotkin, Peter. "Mutual Aid." In Darwin: A Norton Critical Edition. 1902, pp. 398-403.

Paul, Diane B. "Evolutionary Anxieties." Chapter 2 in Controlling Human Heredity: 1865 to the Present. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1995, pp. 22-39. ISBN: 1573923435.
Midterm
13 Germ Theory
14 Therapeutic Revolutions Therapeutic Revolutions

Pasteur, Louis. "The Attenuation of the Causal Agent of Fowl Cholera." In Milestones in Microbiology: 1546-1940. Washington: ASM Press, 1880, pp. 126-131.

Koch, Robert. "Methods for the Study of Pathogenic Organisms." In Milestones in Microbiology: 1546-1940. Washington: ASM Press, 1881, pp. 101-108.

———. "The Aetiology of Tuberculosis." Lecture given on March 24, 1882.

Jordan, Edwin O. "Profitable and Fruitless Lines of Endeavor in Public Health Word." Science 33 (1911): 833-839.

Geison, Gerald L. "Organization, Products, and Marketing in Pasteur's Scientific Enterprise." In History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 24 (2002): 37-51.

Rosenberg, Charles. "The Therapeutic Revolution: Medicine, Meaning, and Social Change in Nineteenth-century America." In Explaining Epidemics and Other Studies in the History of Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992, pp. 9-31.
15 Freud
16 War, Science, and Psychiatry Psychiatry, Science, and War

Goldstein, Jan. "The Hysteria Diagnosis and the Politics of Anti-Clericalism in Late Nineteenth Century France." Journal of Modern History 54 (1982): 209-239.

Smith, Roger. "The Unconscious: Reason and Unreason." Chapter 18 in The Norton History of the Human Sciences. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1997, pp. 701-721. ISBN: 0393317331.

Freud, Sigmund. Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis. Edited by James Strachey. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1961, 1989, pp. 5-62. ISBN: 0393008479.

Rivers, W. H. R. "The Repression of War Experience." Lancet 191. (February 2, 1918): 173-177.

Slotten, Hugh R. "Human Chemistry or Scientific Barbarism? American Responses to World War I Poison Gas, 1915-1930." Journal of American History (September 1990): 476-498.
17 Eugenics
18 Race and Intelligence Eugenics and Psychological Testing

Paul, Diane B. Controlling Human Heredity: 1865 to the Present. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1995, pp. 40-135. ISBN: 1573923435.

Pearl, Raymond. "Breeding Better Men: The New Science of Eugenics which would Elevate the Race by Producing Higher Types." The World's Work (January 1908): 9818-9824.

Davenport, Charles B. "The Effects of Race Intermingling." Proc. of the American Philosophical Society 56 (1917): 364-368.

Cattell, James McKeen. "On Mental Tests." In A Source Book in the History of Psychology. Edited by Richard J. Herrnstein and Edwin G. Boring. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1956, pp. 423-427.

Watson, John B. "On Behavioralism." In A Source Book in the History of Psychology. Edited by Richard J. Herrnstein and Edwin G. Boring. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1956, pp. 507-515.
19 Modern Physics Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

Becquerel, Henri. "The Radiation from Uranium." In A Source Book in Physics. Edited by William F. Magie. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965, pp. 610-613.

Michelson, Albert, and Edward Morley. "The Michelson-Morley Experiment." In A Source Book in Physics. Edited by William F. Magie. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965, pp. 369-377.

Cline, Barbara Lovett. "Albert Einstein - Work of 1905." Chapter 5 in Men Who Made a New Physics: Physicists and the Quantum Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965, 1987, pp. 64-87. ISBN: 0226110273.

Einstein, Albert. Relativity: The Special and General Theory. Translated by Robert W. Lawson. Metheun & Co., Ltd, 1920, 1916, pp. 66-103.

Heisenberg, Werner. "Philosophical Problems of Atomic Physics." In Science and Culture in the Western Tradition. Edited by John G. Burke. Scottsdale, AZ: Gorsuch Scarisbrick, 1987, pp. 252-256. ISBN: 0897878116.
20 Science and the Second World War
21 Cold War Physics Scientists at War

Bernstein, Jeremy. Hitler's Uranium Club: The Secret Recordings at Farm Hall. Woodbury, NY: American Institute of Physics, 1996, pp. 70-94.

Owens, Larry. "MIT and the Federal 'Angel': Academic R & D and Federal-Private Cooperation before World War II." Isis 81 (1990): 188-213.

Galison, Peter. "Physics between War and Peace." In Science, Technology and the Military, Sociology of the Sciences. Vol. 12. Edited by E. Mendelsohn, M. R. Smith, and P. Weingart. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1988, pp. 47-86.

Leslie, Stuart. "Profit and Loss: The Military and MIT in the Postwar Era." Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 21 (1990): 59-85.

Bernstein, Barton J. "Leo Szilard: Giving Peace a Chance in the Nuclear Age." Physics Today (September 1987): 40-47.
22 Cold War Medicine
23 Molecular Biology Research Ethics and Molecular Biology

Hinners, R. A. "Report of Participation in Selected Volunteer Program of DESERT ROCK V-7, and Description of the Effects of 50 KT Burst as Observed at 2,000 Yards from Ground Zero." June 5, 1953.

Morange, Michel. A History of Molecular Biology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998, pp. 167-252.

Berg, Paul, David Baltimore, Sydney Brenner, Richard O. Roblin, and Maxine F. Singer. "Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA Molecules." Science 188 (June 6, 1975): 991-994.
24 The Computer Age
25 Conclusions: Science in the 21st Century The Computer Age

Ceruzzi, Paul E. A History of Modern Computing. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998, pp. 207-306. ISBN: 0262032554.

Wiener, Nobert. Cybernetics: Or, Control and Communication in the Animal and in the Machine. 2nd ed. New York: MIT Press, 1961, pp. 116-132. ISBN: 026273009X.