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翻譯:黃瑞權(簡介並寄信)
編輯:馬景文(簡介並寄信)


作業
Assignments

作為一門HASS-CI (STS.042) 和CI-M (8.225)課程,將會非常注重寫作和口頭交流。在這學期將會安排總共20到24頁的寫作練習。第一篇論文(4-5頁)將在第7節課提交。第一篇論文(6-7頁)將在第14節課提交。學生們修改第二篇論文並再次提交,以便在準備期末論文之前給學生們提供一個專注於具體寫作技能的機會;重寫的第二篇論文將在第21節課提交。最後一篇(10-12頁)將在第26節課提交。論文的細節將在課堂上傳達。這學期內學生們也將準備輪流做口頭陳述報告。報告將包括對指定閱讀物的總結和對本周材料中相關的學習問題的陳述。基於其公開陳述,講演學生將引導接下來的課堂討論。另外除了這些書面和口頭交流作業之外,在第12節課還有一次堂上期中考試。不接受任何遲交的論文。
As a HASS-CI (STS.042) and CI-M (8.225) Subject, there will be a heavy emphasis upon writing and oral communication. There will be three papers assigned for a total of 20-24 pages of writing over the course of the semester. The first paper (4-5 pp.) will be due in class in session #7. The second paper (6-7 pp.) will be due in class in session #14. Students will revise and resubmit their second papers, to give them an opportunity to work on specific writing skills before preparing the final paper; the paper 2 re-writes will be due in class in session #21. The final paper (10-12 pp.) will be due in class in session #26. Details of the paper assignments will be circulated in class. Students will also take turns making prepared oral presentations over the course of the semester. Presentations will involve a summary of assigned readings and presentation of study questions pertinent to that week's material. The student will then lead the ensuing class discussion, based on her or his opening presentation. In addition to these written and oral communication assignments, there will be an in-class midterm in session #12. No late papers will be accepted.

你可下載一份包含所有下列作業的PDF檔
You may download a PDF file containing all of the assignments listed below.


論文作業(一):
Paper Assignment #1

作業:討論什麼是"經典物理學"中的"經典"。
Assignment:
Discuss what was "classical" about "classical physics."
到期日:第7節課
Due date: Session #7
長度:4-5頁,雙倍行距。使用標準頁邊距(頁邊1到1.25英寸)和12號字體。
Length: 4-5 double-spaced pages. You should use standard margins (1-inch to 1.25-inches on each side of the page) and a 12-point font.
成績:論文(一)的成績佔期末成績20%。
Grade: Your grade on Paper 1 will contribute 20% of your final course grade.

在這篇簡短論文中,你要從讀物及課堂內容中分析"經典物理"中的"經典"是什麼。19世紀和20世紀早期的經典物理學不僅僅是"現代的前身";它有其自己的方法、目標和價值作為很好的解釋。這些目標和價值中的一些是什麼?對於這些物理學家來說,什麼是其研究目標和領域?像英國的Maxwell派學者或者像《經典物理學家的午夜思考》中的虛構人物Victor Jakob這些科學家是如何追求其目標的?這些人物並不都完全像經典物理學家--你可以比較一下英國和德國科學家。愛因斯坦研究狹義相對論是如何在經典和現代物理學之間轉換?
For this brief paper, you should analyze what was "classical" about "classical physics," drawing on sources from the readings as well as from lectures. Classical physics of the 19th and early 20th centuries was more than simply "pre-modern"; it had its own approaches, goals, and values for what counted as good explanations. What were some of these goals and values? What were the objects or domains of study for these physicists? How did real physicists, like the British Maxwellians, or fictional composite figures, like Victor Jakob from Night Thoughts of a Classical Physicist, pursue their work? These characteristics were not exactly the same for all classical physicists — you might want to consider contrasts between the British and German cases. How was Albert Einstein's work on special relativity transitional between classical and modern physics?

你可以利用讀物或者課堂中的具體例子。當引用讀物時,用標準的註腳方法,給出你引用的所有資料的詳細書目資訊。(適當註腳格式範例在教學大綱中列出;如果有什麼問題,可以問課程的寫作導師或者我)
You should use specific examples from the readings and from lectures. When drawing on readings, use standard footnote conventions, giving full bibliographic information for all sources you cite. (Examples of appropriate footnote formats appear in the syllabus; if you have any questions, ask the course's writing tutor or me.)


論文作業二:
Paper Assignment #2

作業:討論物理學家背景(制度、政治、文化)和其研究內容之間的關係
Assignment: Discuss the relationship between physicists』 contexts (institutional, political, cultural) and the content of their research.
到期日:第14節課
Due date: Session #14.
長度:6-7頁,雙倍行距。使用標準頁邊距(頁邊1到1.25英寸)和12號字體。
Length: 6-7 double-spaced pages. You should use standard margins (1-inch to 1.25-inches on each side of the page) and a 12-point font.
成績:論文二成績佔期末成績的20%。
Grade: Your grade on Paper 2 will contribute 20% of your final course grade.

物理學家的工作背景會影響他們的研究工作嗎?如果是,是怎樣以及多大程度的影響呢?民族風格或背景會對物理學家產生影響嗎?在分析這些問題的時候,你要利用讀物和課堂上關於這課程相對論和量子理論的單元。一些我們所讀到的史學家著作已說明各種背景-內容互動影響的個案(包括其中的Gerald Holton, Andrew Warwick, Loren Graham, Paul Forman和 Alexi Assmus)。他們工作的一些共同特徵是什麼?這些歷史學家研究的英、德、俄和美國的物理學家有什麼不同,在每種情況下又是如何影響到他們所做的?你同意他們的分析嗎?你是如何處理這問題?你的論文應當有清晰的主題或者論點,而且還要有來自讀物或者課堂的具體的例子來佐證你的觀點。(這些問題沒有一個確定的答案;重要的是如何闡明你的觀點,以及你是如何出色地用例子和證據證明你的觀點。)
Do the contexts in which physicists work affect the research that they do? If so, how, in what ways, and to what extent? Do national styles or contexts play a role in physicists』 work? In analyzing these questions, you should draw on the readings and lectures from both the relativity and quantum-theory units of the course. Several historians we have been reading have made the case for various types of context-content interactions (including Gerald Holton, Andrew Warwick, Loren Graham, Paul Forman, and Alexi Assmus, among others). What are some common features of their work? What are some differences between the cases of British, German, Russian, and American physicists that these historians have studied, and how has this affected the physics done in each case? Do you agree with their analyses? How would you approach the issue? Your paper should have a clearly-articulated thesis or argument, and you should defend your position with specific examples from the readings and lectures. (There is no single correct answer to these questions; what matters is how clearly you articulate your thesis, and how well you defend your thesis with examples and evidence.)

用標準的註腳方法,給出你所引的所有資料詳細的書目資訊。適當註腳格式在範例中列出;如果有什麼問題,可以問課程的寫作導師或者我。沒有用合適的註腳格式會降低你的績分。
Use standard footnote conventions, giving full bibliographic information for all sources you cite. Examples of appropriate footnote formats appear in the syllabus; if you have any questions, ask the course's writing tutor or me. Failure to use appropriate footnote formatting will lower your grade.

你最好在交作業之前把你的綱要和(或者)草稿給寫作導師Sandy Brown看看。你在論文第一次評分之後還有機會修改文章,結合反饋資訊並作整體改進。初稿在第14節課上交。修訂稿在第21節課上交。
You are encouraged to go over outlines and/or drafts with Sandy Brown, the course's writing tutor before the due date. You will also have the opportunity to revise your paper following its first grading, to incorporate feedback and work on overall improvements. The first version is due in class in session #14. The revised version is due in class in session #21.


期末論文作業:
Final Paper Assignment

到期日:第26節課上。
Due date: Session #26, in class.
長度:6-7頁,雙倍行距。使用標準頁邊距(頁邊1到1.25英寸)和12號字體。
Length: 10-12 double-spaced pages. You should use standard margins (1-inch to 1.25-inches on each side of the page) and a 12-point font.
成績:論文三成績佔期末成績的25%。
Grade: Your grade on Paper 3 will contribute 25% of your final course grade.

本次作業要寫10-12頁,關於一個具體的歷史爭論,並引用主要和第二文獻證明。你會用上這學期練習所用的全部技巧來構建和提出你的觀點。在本頁後列出的兩個題目中選一個。論文須用到至少兩種原始文獻和四種第二文獻。對於下列兩個題目,我們已彙編了一系列參考資料並在網站上放了一些資料。如果你想寫一個不同的題目,需提前與Kaiser教授或課程助教討論。
In this assignment you will be writing a 10-12 page paper that advances a specific historical argument and supports it by citing primary and secondary sources. In order to construct and present your argument, you will have to bring to bear all of the skills that you have been practicing this term. You should select one of the two topics listed on the back of this sheet. Your paper must draw on at least two primary sources, as well as at least four secondary sources. For the two topics listed below, we have compiled a list of references and made several materials available on the course website. If you would prefer to write about a different topic, you must discuss your topic ahead of time with either Prof. Kaiser or the course TA.

首先精讀原始文獻。作者具體說什麼?他們是如何為其觀點辯證什麼是理所當然的?讀完之後什麼仍然模糊或不清楚?作者設定讀者是何人?文章是否明顯地被社會、文化、智慧、制度或政治背景影響?
First, you have to do a close reading of your primary sources. What exactly do the authors say? How do they argue for the points that they make? What is taken for granted? What remains ambiguous or unclear at the end of your reading? What do the authors assume about their readership? Are there obvious ways that the text has been shaped by its social, cultural, intellectual, institutional, or political context?

其次,至少讀四種第二文獻,並說出原始文獻不同的詮釋方法。歷史學家對這些資料的看法是否一般和你一樣?他們認為那些概念重要,為什麼?他們如何在歷史洪流中安排這些材料?歷史學家當中是如何同意或者不同意這些資料?什麼歷史傳記的觀點特別有趣、或特別有爭議或特別含糊?你寫論文可以為歷史傳記增添什麼?
Second, you have to read at least four secondary sources and try to figure out the various ways that the primary sources have been interpreted. Have historians generally understood these sources in the same the way that you do? What ideas do they think are important, and why? How do they position these sources in the flow of history? How do the historians agree or disagree amongst themselves about these sources? What historiographical points have been particularly interesting, or contentious, or murky? What are you adding to the historiographical literature by writing your paper?

當你在閱讀和重讀資料時,做詳細的筆記。你要知道是在哪里找到特別有趣的引言或者概念,才可以正確引用作者的話。要求用恰當的註腳和書目引用。
As you are reading and rereading your sources, take detailed notes. You will need to know where you found a particularly interesting quote or idea so that you can cite the author properly. Proper footnote and bibliography citations are required.

開始寫論文時,仔細考慮結構。是否有引言段落說清楚問題、清晰闡明主題、以及概述接下來的討論?你在論文主體中提出的每一點能否清晰並引人注目地支持論題?是否有結尾段,以更廣泛的意義來概括論點和態度?你的論文是否簡明、精確而直接?生動嗎?你的助教是否會為你交給他的優雅而美麗的論文而折服?
When you start to compose your paper, think carefully about its structure. Do you have an introductory paragraph that sets up the problem, clearly states your thesis, and outlines your ensuing discussion? Do each of the points that you raise in the body of your paper support your thesis in a clear and compelling way? Do you have a concluding paragraph that wraps up your argument and gestures at its wider significance? Is your writing concise, precise and explicit? Is it lively? Is your TA going to fall to his knees and bless your name for putting such a thing of grace and beauty into his hands?

期末論文作業題目
Topics for Final Paper Assignment

I.討論二戰後美國的物理學家和政治之間的相互關係。
I. Discuss the interrelationships between physicists and politics in the United States after World War II.

原始文獻
Primary Sources

〈國家諮詢委員會報告,1949年10月30日〉於《諮詢者:歐本海默、特勒和超級氫彈》. 第二版,重印,Herbert York. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989 [1976], 153-162頁
"The GAC Report of October 30, 1949." In The Advsiors: Oppenheimer, Teller, and the Superbomb. 2nd ed. Reprinted in Herbert York. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989 [1976], pp. 153-162.

Allison, Samuel K.〈物理學的現況;或是,為了重要而冒險〉《原子科學家學報》6 (1950年1月): 2-4, 26-27.
Allison, Samuel K. "The State of Physics; or, the Perils of Being Important." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 6 (January 1950): 2-4, 26-27.

Seitz, Frederick.〈物理學家和冷戰〉《原子科學家學報》 6 (1950年3月): 83-89.
Seitz, Frederick. "Physicists and the Cold War." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 6 (March 1950): 83-89.

Richard Polenberg編輯《論歐本海默:安全許可聽證會》Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002, 94-111頁.
In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer: The Security Clearance Hearing. Edited by Richard Polenberg. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002, pp. 94-111.

第二文獻
Secondary Sources

Bernstein, Bart.〈論歐本海默〉《物理科學的歷史研究》12 (1982): 195-252.
Bernstein, Bart. "In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer." Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 12 (1982): 195-252.

Wang, Jessica.〈科學,安全和冷戰:E.U. Condon的案例〉《Isis哲學和科學歷史期刊》 83 (1992): 238-69.
Wang, Jessica. "Science, Security, and the Cold War: The Case of E. U. Condon." Isis 83 (1992): 238-69.

Kaiser, David.〈核子民主:戰後美國的政治交戰,教學改革和粒子物理〉《Isis哲學和科學歷史期刊》93 (2002): 229-268.
Kaiser, David. "Nuclear Democracy: Political Engagement, Pedagogical Reform, and Particle Physics in Postwar America." Isis 93 (2002): 229-268.

Forman, Paul〈量子電子學的背後:國家安全作為美國物理研究的基礎,1940-1960〉《物理和生物學歷史研究》 18 (1987): 149-229.
Forman, Paul "Behind Quantum Electronics: National security as Basis for Physical Research in the United States, 1940-1960." Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 18 (1987): 149-229.

Galison, Peter與 Barton Bernstein.〈無論如何:科學家和製造氫彈的決定〉《物理和生物學歷史研究》19 (1989): 267-347.
Galison, Peter and Barton Bernstein. "In Any light': Scientists and the Decision to Build the Hydrogen Bomb." Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 19 (1989): 267-347.

Kaiser, David.〈冷戰徵用,科學人力和二戰後美國物理學家的成果〉《物理和生物學歷史研究》 33 (2002年秋季): 131-159.
Kaiser, David. "Cold War Requisitions, Scientific Manpower, and the Production of American Physicists After World War II." Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 33 (Fall 2002): 131-159.

II.討論二戰中研究原子武器的德國物理學家的參與情況
II. Discuss the involvement of German physicists with atomic weapons research during World War II.

原始文獻
Primary Sources

選自Klaus與Ann Hentschel編輯《物理和國家社會主義:原始文獻文選》 Boston: Birkhauser, 1996, 332-406頁. [這包括多份原始文獻;你不需要引用所有資料]
Selections from Physics and National Socialism: An Anthology of Primary Sources. Edited by Klaus, and Ann Hentschel. Boston: Birkhauser, 1996, pp. 332-406. [This contains several separate primary sources; you need not draw on all of the sources included here.]

《Farm Hall手稿》. Charles Frank編輯. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993, 70-91頁
Farm Hall Transcripts. Edited by Charles Frank. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993, pp. 70-91.

1941年Niels Bohr和Werner Heisenberg在哥本哈根會面的文件,可從Niels Bohr Archive網站下載。點擊〈2002年2月6日發佈的文件〉
Documents regarding the 1941 meeting in Copenhagen between Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, available on-line at the Niels Bohr Archive website.
Click on "Documents Released 6 February 2002."

第二文獻
Secondary Sources

Powers, Thomas.《海森堡的戰爭:德國氫彈秘史》. Boston: Little, Brown, 1993, 110-52頁,另506-16頁的註腳.
Powers, Thomas. Heisenberg's War: The Secret History of the German Bomb. Boston: Little, Brown, 1993, pp. 110-52, plus endnotes on pp. 506-16.

Walker, Mark.《納粹科學:神話、真相和德國原子彈》. New York: Plenum, 1995, 183-268頁,另301-16頁的註腳.
Walker, Mark. Nazi Science: Myth, Truth, and the German Atomic Bomb. New York: Plenum, 1995, pp. 183-268, plus endnotes on pp. 301-16.

Cassidy, David.《測不準:Werner Heisenberg的一生和科學》. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1992, 417-446頁,另621-6頁的註腳.
Cassidy, David. Uncertainty: The Life and Science of Werner Heisenberg. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1992, pp. 417-446, plus endnotes on pp. 621-6.

Carson, Cathryn.《粒子物理學和文化政治:Werner Heisenberg和這位物理學家在戰後西德角色的形成》. 哈佛大學博士論文,1995, 250-334頁.
Carson, Cathryn. Particle Physics and Cultural Politics: Werner Heisenberg and the shaping of a role for the physicist in postwar West Germany. Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1995, pp. 250-334.


 
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