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 期中復習題Midterm Review Questions 期中考試將在第12節課堂上舉行。形式為閉卷，有各種問題，含術語鑒定和簡答題。考試問題會基於一些以下的題目，將佔期末成績的25%。The midterm examination will be held in session #12, in class. The format will be closed-book and closed-notes, with a variety of types of questions, including some terms to identify and some short answer questions. The exam will be comprised of questions based on some of these topics, and will contribute 25% of your final course grade. 1. 什麼是Maxwell派學者的"機械世界觀"？什麼是19世紀德國理論家的"電動力世界觀"？1. What was the Maxwellians』 "mechanical worldview"? What was the 19th century German theorists』 "electrodynamic worldview"? 2．利用Minkowski圖表，示範同時性的相對性。同樣用觀測者在不同慣性參照系所見一個小「光子鍾」的照片，得出愛因斯坦時間膨脹公式。時間膨脹公式，Δt' = γΔt，用文字表達是什麼意思？因數Y是如何因為比率(v/c)而改變?2. Using a Minkowski diagram, demonstrate the relativity of simultaneity. Similarly, using pictures of a light-clock as seen by observers in different inertial reference frames, derive Einstein's formula for time-dilation. What does the time-dilation formula, Δt』 = γΔt, mean in words? How does the factor γ depend on the ratio (v/c)? 3．討論愛因斯坦在其1905年的狹義相對論論文中，進行或不進行Machian線的一些方法。3. Discuss some of the ways Einstein was and was not proceeding along Machian lines in his 1905 paper on special relativity. 4．什麼是Michelson-Morley實驗？它要測量什麼？物理學像Lorentz和Poincare對其結果是何反應？其結果如何能利用狹義相對論解釋？4. What was the Michelson-Morley experiment? What did it aim to measure? How did physicists such as Lorentz and Poincare react to its results? How could its results be explained by special relativity? 5．其他物理學家像Minkowski和Cunningham，是如何閱讀和挪用愛因斯坦狹義相對論論文？5. How did other physicists, such as Minkowski and Cunningham, read and appropriate Einstein's special relativity paper? 6．愛因斯坦的"廣義相對論"中的"廣義"是指什麼？加速度運動和動力場的等價理論意味著什麼？愛因斯坦認為此理論對宇宙幾何結構有什麼暗示？這理論的三項「經典」測試是什麼？6. What was "general" about Einstein's "general relativity"? What does the equivalence principle imply about accelerated motions and gravitational fields? What did Einstein think the theory implied about the geometrical structure of the universe? What were the three "classic" tests of the theory? 7．什麼是Niels Bohr的原子模型？此模型是以什麼具體方式打破經典物理學？Louis de Broglie的工作是如何與Bohr的工作相關？de Broglie的波長如何隨物體的質量和速度而改變？這種「波形」在什?比例變得相關？7. What was Niels Bohr's model of the atom? In what specific ways did the model break with classical physics? How did Louis de Broglie's work relate to Bohr's? How does the de Broglie wavelength vary with an object's mass and velocity? On what scales does such "waviness" becomes relevant? 8．討論Heisenberg的不確性原理。這原理有些什麼不同的銓釋方法?8. Discuss Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. What are some of the different ways in which the principle has been interpreted? 9. 定義Niels Bohr的對應原理和互補性。9. Define Niels Bohr's correspondence principle and complementarity. 10．描述EPR(Einstein, Podolsky和Rosen) 論證的兩個潛在原則（"現實標準"和"可分離性"），並討論Bohr抗辯這理論的一些方法。10. Describe the two principles underlying the EPR argument ("reality criterion" and "separability"), and discuss some of the ways Bohr countered this argument. 11．Bell的結論是什麼，為什麼重要？Mermin的思考試驗是如何表現Bell的結果？有關粒子擁有確定特質可以得到什麼結論？11. What was Bell's result, and why was it significant? How does Mermin's thought experiment represent Bell's result, and what conclusions can be drawn concerning particles』 possession of determinate properties? 12．Paul Forman的論題是什麼？他用什麼證據來證明其觀點？討論這一論題的一些反對論點。12. What is Paul Forman's thesis? What kinds of evidence does he use to defend his position? Discuss some objections to it.