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翻譯:黃瑞權(簡介並寄信)
編輯:馬景文(簡介並寄信)


下面是一些歷史課程的閱讀策略和按課時劃分的課程閱讀參考書目
Below are some reading strategies for history courses as well as a bibliography of course readings by session.


一些關於歷史課程的閱讀策略
Some Reading Strategies for History Courses

非正式建議清單
A List of Informal Suggestions*
  1. 1. 歷史不僅僅是知道事實和日期。它同樣包括理解事實如何以及為什麼發生。所以不要以犧牲整體圖景而拘泥于只談各種事實和日期。關鍵是自問:"為什麼這事件是重要的,以及它和其他事件有何關聯?"這些問題將把你的事實和日期整合成為整體框架。例如,記住?述中所有的日期並不是那麼重要,而不是問,"哪個日子發生了十分重要的事,以及在事情發生順序上,這些告訴了我們什麼。"這並不是說你可以忘記所有的事實和日期,而是建議在一個有意義的背景中記住它們。
    History isn't just about learning facts and dates. It's also about understanding how and why things happened. So don't get bogged down in taking in all the facts and dates, at the expense of the big picture. The key is to ask yourself, "Why would this event be important, and how does it relate to other events?" These questions give you the framework to hang your facts and dates on. For instance, it's not so important to remember all the dates that show up in the narratives, but rather to ask, "Which dates refer to especially significant things, and what do they tell us about the order in which things happened?" This is not to say that you can forget all facts and dates, but it is to suggest remembering them within a meaningful context.

  2. 2. 歷史讀物通常提供很多細節資訊,比你實際上需要記憶的要多。還是那句話,大圖景才是重要的。歷史記載的作者常常用一些細節使他們的案例更加具有說服力或者更吸引人。但基於上述同樣的原則,並非所有的細節都需要摘錄並保存下來。
    History readings often give you more details of information than you actually need to remember. Again, here the big picture is important. Authors of historical accounts often include details to make their cases more persuasive or appealing. But on the same principle as above, not all of these details need to be noted down and stored away.

  3. 3. 歷史是闡釋性的。這就意味著有時候人們會對歷史事件有不同的講述或者賦予歷史事件不同的意義。當你閱讀歷史的時候應記住:你以前所知的?述並不表現最終事實。這並不意味著歷史是簡單捏造的或者"本就那樣"。相反,這些?述(通常)是那些聰明而又有思想的人努力的結果,他們想弄清楚我們能從過去所發生的事情中發現什麼。
    History is interpretive. This means that people will sometimes tell different stories about events or attribute different significance to them. When you read history you should keep in mind that the accounts you have before you do not represent the final truth. This does not mean that history is simply made up or that "anything goes." Rather, these historical accounts represent the efforts of (usually) intelligent, thoughtful people to make sense of what we can find out about what happened in the past.

  4. 4. 歷史課程通常要做大量的閱讀。因此你應練習主動而思辨的閱讀。時刻問自己:"這部書或文章說的是什麼?我想從中學到什麼呢?"然後組織你閱讀的資料來回答這些問題。通常,這樣會在你深入理解之前幫你很快地流覽材料以便弄清楚講的是什麼;也會在你越讀完之後幫你回顧以便在理解中確定主旨。
    History courses often have a lot of reading. Therefore you need to practice active, intelligent reading. Keep asking yourself, "What is the point of this book or article? What am I supposed to be getting out of it?" Then organize your reading around answering those questions. Often it helps to scan material quickly to get a sense of what the point is before really getting into it; often it helps to look back over it after reading it to fix the main points in your understanding.

  5. 5. 歷史課程要用到各種不同的資料,所以需要各種不同的讀物。譬如,關於某人生活的?述可能會比一個歷史學家對某事實及其成因的分析更快更容易地被閱讀。收集基礎文獻會讓你提出比課本更多的問題。嗚謝伯克利加州大學Cathryn Carson教授允許使用。
    History courses use different kinds of materials that demand different kinds of reading. For instance, a narrative of someone's life will probably be quicker and easier to read than a historian's analysis of an event and its reasons. A collection of primary documents will make you ask different questions than will a textbook account.

帶星號(*)的閱讀作業應在每堂課之前完成。
* Courtesy of Professor Cathryn Carson, University of California at Berkeley. Used with permission.


課程閱讀參考書目
Bibliography of Course Readings

Reading assignments marked with an asterisk (*), should be completed before each lecture.

課程單元 閱讀資料
Ⅰ緒論及背景
I. Introduction and Background
第一周:課程結構及緒論
Week 1: Course Organization and Introduction
1 緒論課
Introductory Lecture
在第三課之前完成《一個經典物理學家的午夜思考》
Begin reading Night Thoughts of a Classical Physicist, to be completed by session #3.
第二周: 19世紀的遺產
Week 2: The Nineteenth-Century Legacy
2 麥克斯韋,電氣力學和劍橋高材生
Maxwell, Electrodynamics, and Cambridge Wranglers
麥克斯韋,詹姆斯-克拉克《電磁學論文》第三版。第1冊,牛津:Clarendon, 1892, pp. v-xii, 155-68.
* Maxwell, James Clerk. Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892, pp. v-xii, 155-68.

* Hunt, Bruce J.《Maxwell派學者》Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991, 73-107頁.
* Hunt, Bruce J. The Maxwellians. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991, pp. 73-107.
3 機械和電氣動力世界圖景和理論物理的產生
Mechanical and Electrodynamical World Pictures, and the Rise of Theoretical Physics
完成閱讀《一個經典物理學家的午夜思考》
Finish reading Night Thoughts of a Classical Physicist.
Ⅱ。愛因斯坦:相對論、量子理論、以及哲人科學家
II. Einstein: Relativity, Quanta, and the Philosopher-Scientist
第三周:狹義相對論的起源;物理、哲學,試驗
Week 3: The Origins of Special Relativity: Physical, Philosophical, Experimental
4 廣義相對論和乙太
Special Relativity and the Ether
* 牛頓,〈注釋〉於I. Bernard Cohen與 Richard Westfall編輯《牛頓:文本、背景及注釋》New York: W. W. Norton, 1995, 231-3頁
* Newton, Isaac. "Scholium." In Newton: Texts, Backgrounds, Commentaries. Edited by I. Bernard Cohen, and Richard Westfall. New York: W. W. Norton, 1995, pp. 231-3.

* Mach, Ernst.《力學科學》 LaSalle: Open Court, 1960, 271-5頁
* Mach, Ernst. The Science of Mechanics. LaSalle: Open Court, 1960, pp. 271-5.

* 愛因斯坦〈論運動物體的電動力學〉於Arthur I. Miller (1905) 翻譯重印《狹義相對論:產生及其早期解釋》Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1981, 392-6頁
* Einstein, Albert. "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies." In Albert Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity: Emergence and Early Interpretation(1905-1911). Translated and reprinted by Arthur I. Miller (1905). Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1981, pp. 392-6.
5 愛因斯坦和試驗
Einstein and Experiment
* Holton, Gerald. 〈Mach,愛因斯坦,和探索現實〉於《科學思想論題的起源:開普勒到愛因斯坦》第二版,Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973 [1988], pp. 237-77.
* Holton, Gerald. "Mach, Einstein, and the Search for Reality." In Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought: Kepler to Einstein, by Gerald Holton. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973 [1988], pp. 237-77.

* Miller, Arthur I. 〈狹義相對論:愛因斯坦對1905年物理學的回應〉於Gerald Holton與 Yehudah Elkana編輯 Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982, 3-26頁
* Miller, Arthur I. "The Special Theory of Relativity: Einstein's Response to the Physics of 1905." In Albert Einstein: Historical and Cultural Perspectives. Edited by Gerald Holton, and Yehudah Elkana. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982, pp. 3-26.
第四周:從狹義相對論到廣義相對論
Week 4: From the Special to the General Theory
6 狹義相對論的接受
The Reception of Special Relativity
* Warwick, Andrew.〈劍橋數學系和卡文迪什物理實驗室:Cunningham, Campbell和愛因斯坦的相對論,1905-1911。第一部分:理論應用〉《科學歷史及哲學研究》 23 (1992): 625-56.
* Warwick, Andrew. "Cambridge Mathematics and Cavendish Physics: Cunningham, Campbell, and Einstein's Relativity, 1905-1911. Part I: The Uses of Theory." Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 23 (1992): 625-56.
7 廣義相對論的起源
The Origins of General Relativity
Poincare, Henri..《科學及假設》 New York: Dover, 1952 [1900], 72-5頁
* Poincaré, Henri. Science and Hypothesis. New York: Dover, 1952 [1900], pp. 72-5.

* 愛因斯坦〈相對論是什??〉於愛因斯坦《思想與見解》Carl Seelig編輯,New York: Crown Publishers, 1954, 227-32頁(譯註:愛因斯坦文集(第一卷)許良英,範岱年編譯,北京 商務印書館 1976-1979 )
* Einstein, Albert. "What is the Theory of Relativity?" In Ideas and Opinions by Albert Einstein. Edited by Carl Seelig. New York: Crown Publishers, 1954, pp. 227-32.

* Kaiser, David.《廣義相對論初級讀本》,未出版手稿 (c 1998).
* Kaiser, David. "General Relativity Primer." Unpublished manuscript (© 1998).

* Graham, Loren.〈愛因斯坦思想的接受:相對政治文化中的兩個例子〉於Gerald Holton與 Yehudah Elkana編輯《愛因斯坦:歷史及文化透視》. Edited by Gerald Holton, and Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982, 107-36頁
* Graham, Loren. "The Reception of Einstein's Ideas: Two Examples from Contrasting Political Cultures." In Albert Einstein: Historical and Cultural Perspectives. Edited by Gerald Holton, and Yehudah Elkana. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982, pp. 107-36.
第五周:從量子論到量子力學
Week 5: From Quantum Theory to Quantum Mechanics
8 輻射、量子、和原子,1900-1913
Radiation, Quanta, and Atoms, 1900-1913
* Segre, Emilio.《從X射線到誇克:現代物理學家及其發現》. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1980, 61-77頁
* Segrè, Emilio. From X-Rays to Quarks: Modern Physicists and Their Discoveries. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1980, pp. 61-77.

* Heilbron, John L. 〈Bohr的原子第一理論〉於A. P. French與 J. Kennedy編輯《玻爾:百年紀念文集》Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985, 33-49頁
* Heilbron, John L. "Bohr's First Theories of the Atom." In Niels Bohr: A Centenary Volume. Edited by A. P. French, and P. J. Kennedy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985, pp. 33-49.
9 矩陣和波
Matrices and Waves
* Heisenberg, Werner〈運動和力之間關係的量子理論再解釋〉於B. L. van der Waerden翻譯重印《量子力學的源頭》New York: Dover, 1967, 261-6頁
* Heisenberg, Werner. "Quantum-Theoretical Re-Interpretation of Kinematic and Mechanical Relations." Translated and reprinted in Sources of Quantum Mechanics. Edited by B. L. van der Waerden. New York: Dover, 1967, pp. 261-6.

* Moore, Walter. 《Schrodinger:生命與思想》. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989, 191-200頁
* Moore, Walter. Schrödinger: Life and Thought. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989, pp. 191-200.
第六周:量子力學的解釋
Week 6: Interpreting Quantum Mechanics
10 愛因斯坦-玻爾辯論
The Einstein-Bohr Debate
* Mermin, N. David〈任何人的量子之謎〉《哲學期刊》78 (1981): 397-408.
* Mermin, N. David. "Quantum Mysteries for Anyone." Journal of Philosophy 78 (1981): 397-408.

* Bohr, Niels.〈玻爾與愛因斯坦對話〉於In A. P. French與 J. Kennedy編輯《玻爾:百年紀念文集》Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985, 121-40頁
* Bohr, Niels. "The Bohr-Einstein Dialogue." In Niels Bohr: A Centenary Volume. Edited by A. P. French, and P. J. Kennedy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985, pp. 121-40.
11 量子的內容:德國魏瑪,兩次大戰之間的美國
The Contexts of Quanta: Weimar Germany, Interwar US
* Forman, Paul.〈魏瑪文化,因果關係和量子理論,1918-1927:由敵對智慧環境中的德國物理學家和數學家改寫〉於Colin Chant與John Fauvel編輯《達爾文到愛因斯坦:科學及信仰的歷史研究》New York: Longman, 1980, pp. 267-302.
* Forman, Paul. "Weimar Culture, Causality, and Quantum Theory, 1918-1927: Adaptation by German Physicists and Mathematicians to a Hostile Intellectual Environment." In Darwin to Einstein: Historical Studies on Science and Belief. Edited by Colin Chant and John Fauvel. New York: Longman, 1980, pp. 267-302.

* Assmus, Alexi.〈分子物理的美國化〉《物理及生物科學的歷史研究》 23 (1992): 1-34.
* Assmus, Alexi. "The Americanization of Molecular Physics." Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 23 (1992): 1-34.
第七周:期中狂文
Week 7: Midterm Extravaganza
開始閱讀 Frayn,Michael.《哥本哈根》(譯註:《哥本哈根》是話劇,根據的是1941年德國物理學家海森伯Heisenberg到被德軍佔領的哥本哈根發表演講,並與他的老師和朋友Bohr玻爾見面,最後不歡而散這一史實。中譯簡體版《哥本哈根--海森伯與玻爾的一次會面》 上海科技出版社:2004 ISBN:7532373266/N·21 )
Begin reading Frayn, Michael. Copenhagen.
12 堂上期中考試
In-class Midterm Examination
Ⅲ。歐本海默:物理,物理學家和國家
III. Oppenheimer: Physics, Physicists, and the State
第八周:轉移中的課題和中心
Week 8: Shifting Topics and Centers
13 20世紀30年代的核子物理;從歐洲到美國
Nuclear Physics in the 1930s; From Europe to America
* Kevles, Daniel J.《物理學家:現代美國科學群體的歷史》第二版,Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987 [1978], 222-35, 282-6頁
* Kevles, Daniel J. The Physicists: The History of a Scientific Community in Modern America. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987 [1978], pp. 222-35, 282-6.
14 *《Farm Hall手稿》Charles Frank編緝, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993, 70-91頁
Physics under Hitler: deutsche Physik and the bomb
Frayn, Michael.《哥本哈根》
* The Farm Hall Transcripts. Edited by Charles Frank. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993, pp. 70-91.

Frayn, Michael. Copenhagen.
第九周:物理學家之戰
Week 9: The Physicists' War
15 美國的物理學:雷達和原子彈
Physics in the US: Radar and the Atomic Bomb
Badash, Lawrence.《科學家及核武器的發展》, 27-47頁
Badash, Lawrence. Scientists and the Development of Nuclear Weapons, pp. 27-47.

* Serber, Robert與 Robert Crease,《和平與戰爭:科學前沿生涯回憶》. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998, 121-44頁
* Serber, Robert, with Robert Crease, Peace and War: Reminiscences of a Life on the Frontiers of Science. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998, pp. 121-44.
16 電影:核試爆後的一天 (譯註:Trinity是美國第一次核試爆的地點)
Film: The Day After Trinity
* Smyth, Henry DeWolf.《用於軍事的原子能》. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1945, 206-26頁
* Smyth, Henry DeWolf. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1945, pp. 206-26.

*歐本海默〈1945年11月2日在Los Alamos科學家協會的演辭〉於Alice Kimball Smith與Charles Weiner編輯《歐本海默:信函及回憶》Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980, 315-25頁
* Oppenheimer, J. Robert. "Speech to the Association of Los Alamos Scientists, November 2, 1945." In Robert Oppenheimer: Letters and Recollections. Edited by Alice Kimball Smith, and Charles Weiner. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980, pp. 315-25.
第十周:氫彈和其他
Week 10: The H-Bomb and Beyond
17 麥卡錫主義和歐本海默聽證會
McCarthyism and the Oppenheimer Hearing
(譯註:參閱〈歐本海默聽證會〉http://worldwar2.diy.myrice.com/zhuanti/hkxj/tzh.htm* Kipphardt, Heinar. 〈歐本海默:自由改編自文檔根據的戲劇〉Ruth Speirs翻譯. New York: Hill and Wang, 1967 [1964], pp. 69-96頁
* Kipphardt, Heinar. In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer: A Play Freely Adapted on the Basis of the Documents. Translated by Ruth Speirs. New York: Hill and Wang, 1967 [1964], pp. 69-96.

* Schrecker, Ellen.《麥卡錫主義時代簡史附文檔》. Boston: Bedford Books, 1994, 32-40, 210-14頁
* Schrecker, Ellen. The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: Bedford Books, 1994, pp. 32-40, 210-14.

Badash, Lawrence.《科學家及核武器的發展》, 63-79, 102-8頁
Badash, Lawrence. Scientists and the Development of Nuclear Weapons, pp. 63-79, 102-8.
18 電影:《製造氫彈的決定》
Film: The Decision to Build the H-Bomb
Badash, Lawrence.《科學家及核武器的發展》, 48-62, 80-88頁
Badash, Lawrence. Scientists and the Development of Nuclear Weapons, pp. 48-62, 80-88.

* Bernstein, Jeremy. 〈需要知道〉於Alan H. Guth, Kerson Huang與Robert L. Jaffe編輯《物理學的漸進線領域:紀念Francis E. Low的論文》Cambridge: MIT Press, 1983, xvii-xxiv頁
* Bernstein, Jeremy. "The Need to Know." In Asymptotic Realms of Physics: Essays in Honor of Francis E. Low. Edited by Alan H. Guth, Kerson Huang, and Robert L. Jaffe. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1983, pp. xvii-xxiv.
Ⅳ。費曼和美國戰後理論
IV. Feynman and Postwar American Theory
第十一洲:微粒和場
Week 11: Particles and Fields
19 大科學的興起
The Rise of Big Science
* Schweber, S. S.〈科學和軍事互相擁抱:二戰後美國海軍研究局和美國物理學的成長〉,於Everett Mendelsohn, Merritt Roe Smith與Peter Weingart編輯《科學、技術和軍事》. Boston: Kluwer, 1988, 3-45頁
* Schweber, S. S. "The Mutual Embrace of Science and the Military: ONR and the Growth of Physics in the United States after World War II." In Science, Technology, and the Military. Edited by Everett Mendelsohn, Merritt Roe Smith, and Peter Weingart. Boston: Kluwer, 1988, pp. 3-45.
20 保守學派的改革;量子電動學和重正化
The Conservative Revolution: QED and Renormalization
* Feynman, Richard.《量子電動力學:光及物質異論》. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985, 77-101頁
* Feynman, Richard. QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985, pp. 77-101.
第十二周:微粒理論中的謎團和衝突
Week 12: Conundrums and Conflict in Particle Theory
21 對場理論的挑戰
The Challenge to Field Theory
* Chew, Geoffrey〈基粒概念的僵局〉於Robert Hutchins與Mortimer Adler編輯《當代科學》. New York: Arno, 1977 [1974], 366-99頁
* Chew, Geoffrey. "Impasse for the Elementary-Particle Concept." In The Sciences Today. Edited by Robert Hutchins, and Mortimer Adler. New York: Arno, 1977 [1974], pp. 366-99.
22 誇克,標準場,和標準模型的興起
Quarks, Gauge Fields, and the Rise of the Standard Model
* Fritzsch, Harald.《誇克:物質》. New York: Basic Books, 47-87, 123-37頁
* Fritzsch, Harald. Quarks: The Stuff of Matter. New York: Basic Books, pp. 47-87, 123-37.
第十三周:實驗室和工廠中的固態物理學
Week 13: Solid-State Physics in the Lab and in the Factory
23 建造固態群體
Building a Solid-State Community
* Kragh, Helge.《量子年代:二十世紀的物理史》 Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999, 366-75頁
* Kragh, Helge. Quantum Generations: A History of Physics in the Twentieth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999, pp. 366-75.

* Riordan, Michael與Lillian Hoddeson.《矽晶之火:電晶體的發明和資訊時代的誕生》. New York: W. W. Norton, 1997, 55-70頁 (譯註:《矽晶之火》葉偉文譯,天下文化 (1998) ,正體版)
* Riordan, Michael, and Lillian Hoddeson. Crystal Fire: The Invention of the Transistor and the Birth of the Information Age. New York: W. W. Norton, 1997, pp. 55-70.
第十四周:宇宙學和統一論
Week 14: Cosmology and Unification
24 大爆炸理論v.穩態宇宙論
Big Bang v. Steady-State Cosmology
* Kragh, Helge.〈大爆炸宇宙論〉於Norriss Hetherington編輯《宇宙學:歷史、文學、哲學、宗教和科學觀》New York: Garland, 1993, 371-89頁
* Kragh, Helge. "Big Bang Cosmology." In Cosmology: Historical, Literary, Philosophical, Religious, and Scientific Perspectives. Edited by Norriss Hetherington. New York: Garland, 1993, pp. 371-89.

* ---〈穩態宇宙論〉於Norriss Hetherington編輯《宇宙學:歷史、文學、哲學、宗教和科學觀》New York: Garland, 1993, 391-404頁
* ———. "Steady State Theory." In Cosmology: Historical, Literary, Philosophical, Religious, and Scientific Perspectives. Edited by Norriss Hetherington. New York: Garland, 1993, pp. 391-404.

* Hoyle, Fred.《宇宙本質》. New York: Harper and Row, 1950, 133-42頁
* Hoyle, Fred. The Nature of the Universe. New York: Harper and Row, 1950, pp. 133-42.
25 膨脹和超弦理論
Inflation and Superstrings
* Galison, Peter〈理論束縛與無束縛:超弦理論和實驗〉於Friedel Weinert編輯《自然法則:哲學維、科學維和歷史維的文章》Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1995, 369-408頁
* Galison, Peter. "Theory Bound and Unbound: Superstrings and Experiment." In Laws of Nature: Essays on the Philosophical, Scientific, and Historical Dimensions. Edited by Friedel Weinert. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1995, pp. 369-408.
第十五周:總結
Week 15: Summary
26 課程總結
Course Summary

 
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