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今日的公司面臨日益增加的市場選擇,價值增加的活動,及跨越國界的據點。此課程著重於國際層面的策略及組織,在日益複雜的世界經濟裡提供策略形成的基本架構,而使這些策略有效的運作。

首先,此課程提供一基本架構:了解產業、特定地區、公司在國際商業裡的競爭力。這些架構可呈現出全球環境的良機,但利用這些機會的同時仍不免遇到管理上的挑戰,其次此課程著重於特定議題和文章的分析工具使用。此課程的主要目標是在多方面的世界商業活動裡提供有效的活動基礎。



書單

必備讀本: Anil Gupta and Eleanor Westmey,eds《精明的全球化-全球策略計劃,創造全球網路》 (Jossey-Bass,2003)。 此外,我們亦建議您購買以下的讀本: 《從全球化到超國家化-企業如何在知識經濟裡贏得先機》(哈佛商學院出版社,2002)。

其他的書單將在網路上公布。


課程要求

課堂參與 (25%) : 評分標準含出席率,若有請假者應事先告知教授,積極參與課程討論佔課堂參與分數很大的部份,但並不是唯一的。在網頁上與教授和全班分享商業報導文章及網路相關訊息是另外一種課堂參與的方式。

個案書面報告作業二份 (每一份佔15%)

期末考 (45%)


第一部份 : 分析工具

講課一 : 導言

閱讀資料 :
第一堂課請參考網路所公布的閱讀的資料,一些短篇商業報導亦有介紹今日的國際商業情勢。

Engardio, Pete, Aaron Bernstein, and Manjeet Kripalani 「這是你的下一個工作嗎?」《商業周刊》 February 3, 2003 Business Week. February 3, 2003.


講課二 : 產業要素

閱讀資料 :
Prahalad, C. K., and Uves Doz 「描繪企業的特色」,《跨國企業之使命》第二章.自由出版社,1987.

Lessard, Donald R. 「全球策略分析體制」,《策略管理教育期刊》 Senate Hall Academic Publishing,2003.

個案討論 : 製藥工業 (五份網路文選) :

  1. 製藥工業 : 變動之科技
    摘錄自「製藥工業」,《經濟學人》,February 21, 1998, pp. 3-5.

  2. 製藥工業之重要策略要因
    大綱依據 : 當企業改變方向,Huff, Ann Sigismund, James Oran Huff, and Pamela S Barr,牛津: 牛津大學出版社,2000.

  3. 「全球市場之風險與報酬」
    Wechsler, Jill. 《歐洲製藥科技雜誌》第十三冊 No 5. May 2001 pp. 20 Copyright 2001, Gale Group, Inc. and Advanstar Communications, Inc.

  4. 簡介四個領導藥廠
    取自 Hoover (http://www.hoovers.com) 線上及Datamonitor (http://www.datamonitor.com) : 輝瑞藥廠,英商葛蘭素史克,德國默克,及諾華集團 about: Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Merck, and Novartis AG.

  5. 順便提及日系製藥工業

問題討論 :

  1. 近幾十年來,您覺得在製藥工業裡,以本土響應性及跨邊界整合的壓力來看,那些是驅動變化最主要的要素? 未來十年您又覺得哪些會是關鍵?
  2. 在這個多變的環境裡,那些公司的策略響應是可以持續長久的? 那些又會影響其定位的選擇?

講課三 : 位置要素 : 國家競爭優勢的根源

閱讀資料 :
Michael Porter 「國家的競爭優勢」 文章第90211號 《哈佛商業評論》 90-2. March-April 1990,pp 73-93.

個案討論 : P Ghemawat 「千禧年的印度軟體工業」 哈佛商業個案第9-700-036號 Boston: 哈佛商學院 July 31,2000.

問題討論 :

  1. 以Porter提出的理論原型來說,什麼是印度最重要的位置優勢?而印度是否適用於Porter有關競爭力地點的鑽石原型理論?
  2. 若您是一家美國重要軟體公司的執行長,您會考慮在印度設立子公司嗎?
  3. 若您是文章中提到的(Tata顧問服務公司、Wipro, Infosys),您會如何運用策略善用印度地理位置優勢並處理其弱點?


講課四 : 企業特有優勢 : 地理位置優勢、地理位置附著優勢及性能


閱讀資料 :
Kogut,Bruce 「全球策略計劃: 比較及競爭的加值鍊」 Gupta and Westney第一章

Westney,Eleanor 「國際化之序列模型摘記」 (在課程網頁上)

Deveny,Kathleen 「麥克世界? 麥當勞可在任何地方製作大麥克漢堡,但是在國外複製其文化卻不是件容易的事。」《商業周刊》 October 13,1986,pp 78-86.

Serwer,Andrew E. 「麥當勞全球致勝之路」《財富》October 17,1994,pp 103-116.

問題討論 :

  1. 麥當勞多依賴其美國母公司地理位置優勢? 這地理位置如何影響其國際化過程? 未來將如何影響麥當勞國際擴展之路?
  2. 在發展國際化的過程中,麥當勞如何及運用何種方法發展其它的能力?


講課五: 可變式跨國營運模式

閱讀資料 :
Bartlett,Christopher A.,and Sumantra Ghoshal. 「管理跨國企業: 新式組織響應」 Gupta and Westney第七章.

個案討論 : Westney,Eleanor. 「ABB: 從符號到危機」,史隆管理學院 (在課程網頁上)

問題討論 :

  1. 九零年代初期,ABB集團是否如研究者所想適用其商業策略?另其缺點及優勢為何?
  2. 為何ABB集團逐年地削弱其母公司地域環境的影響?其作法優缺點為何?
  3. 您對於Centermann’s公司 於2001年進行重整有何看法? ABB集團應有何種替代方案呢?


講課六 : 全球競爭之變化因子

閱讀資料 :
Yip,George. 「全球策略-無數的國家」 Gupta and Westney第二章

個案討論 : Westney,Elenaor. 「島野自行車」 史隆管理學院 (在課程網頁上)

問題討論 :
  1. 島野自行車的母公司是否適用於Porter所提出具競爭性之地點? 其地點優勢及缺點是否隨時間變化而改變? 如是的話,島野自行車應如何回應,其是否適用於Porter之全球策略架構的理論?
  2. 就如於亞洲及歐洲一樣,(除了業務及服務外),您會建議島野自行車於北美洲發展另外的職務嗎?請解釋您的理由。


第二部份:管理跨國企業

講課七:從國際化發展公司特有優勢-市場之全球化

閱讀資料:
Hart, Stuart, and Mark Milstein. 「全球永續力與有創意的毀滅工業」Gupta and Westney第六章

個案討論: Bartlett, Christopher A., and Anthony St. George. 「美國宏痋GAspire的發展」 哈佛商業個案 9-399-011號. Boston: 哈佛商學院, 2001.

問題討論:

  1. Hart和 Milstein提倡將市場區隔三個領域。對MNC而言,在已開發中國家中,其模型的意含為何?從開發中國家中來看有何意義? 為開發中國家中帶來何種含義?
  2. 您對宏皏奕黤曳丰]含其市場及產品選擇的評價為何? 您對美國宏皏奕黤曳云熊價為何?
  3. 發展Aspire,宏眯珥措麊漸D要問題何在?以此次經驗來看,您會對宏皏憎茈奕黤曳之@何種建議?


講課八 : 「從國際化發展公司特有優勢-供應鍊之全球化」


閱讀資料 :
Levy,David. 「國際供應鍊之精實生產」 Gupta and Westney第三章.

個案討論 :Ferdows,Kasra 「外商公司之至大產能」 文章第97204號 哈佛商業評論 March-April 1997.

問題討論 :

  1. Levy文章報導主要根據九零年代中期大量的研究報告。您覺得時代改變以致於其全球供應鏈管理不具時效性嗎?
  2. 在全球供應鍊中,一些Ferdow主要範例著重在新加坡改變之角色。然而,幾乎在新加坡的營運皆是獨資經營。若營運管理權為本地所有,例如為台灣所有,會有那些不同?


講課九 : 「從國際化發展公司特有優勢-科技之全球化」

閱讀資料 :

Birkinshaw, Julian M., and J. N. Fry. 「發展新市場的分支計劃」Gupta and Westney第九章.

個案討論 :第一章及第二章: Doz, Yves, Jose Santos and Peter Williamson. 「從全球化到超國家化-企業如何在知識經濟裡贏得先機」 Boston: 哈佛商學院出版社,2001.

另請見新聞發布: Krasner,Jeffery: 劍橋諾華集團研發中心 「製藥巨擘諾華集團租賃劍橋研發地點」The Boston Globe. May 3,2002,pp E1.

問題討論 :

  1. 若有像諾華集團的公司想要於其主要科技發展中心之外的地點設立新的研究中心,他們所遇到的主要挑戰為何? 您會給諾華集團何種建議呢?


講課十:擴展海外版圖:跨國併購

閱讀資料:
Ghemawat,Pankaj,and Fariborz Ghadar. 「全球超合併之可疑理論」 文章第R00405號 哈佛商業評論 July-August 2000.

問題討論:

  1. 商業媒體認為戴姆克萊斯樂合併案是一樁完美的策略運作,對雙方也有相當正面的影響。對於Nissan雷諾事業的健全性卻有相當的疑問 (而雷諾是Nissan的第二個選擇)。然而今日看來,Nissan雷諾事業卻是較為成功的?為什麼商業媒體有誤呢?或是您覺得他們的報導是正確的?或是需要較長的時間去評斷其事業是成功或失敗的?
  2. 這兩個個案是否合於Ghemawat及 Ghadar全球超合併之評論?
  3. 您從這兩個個案獲得何種跨國併購的重要經驗?請解釋您的理由。


講課十一:擴展海外版圖:從新興市場開始

閱讀資料:
Dawar, Niraj, and Tony Frost. 「與巨擘競爭:擁有新興市場的企業之求生策略」 文章第99203 哈佛商業評論 March-April 1999.

個案討論 :Nanda, Ashish, and Leopoldo E. Lopez Mendoza. 「PDVSA & Citgo (B): 於動盪不安世界尋求穩定性」 HBS Case No 9-899-220 Boston: 哈佛商學院, 1999.

Nanda, Ashish, and Leopoldo E. Lopez Mendoza. 「PDVSA & Citgo (B): 完全合併嗎?」 HBS Case No 9-899-221 Boston: 哈佛商學院,1999.

問題討論:

  1. PDVSA是否有促成Citgo併購的動機?Citgo是否已達成其併購的目的?請解釋您的理由。
  2. 這兩個個案是否合於Ghemawat及 Ghadar全球超合併之評論?

講課十二:擴展海外版圖:跨國風險管理

個案討論:Skoknic, Eseban S., and Jon Martínez. 「Endesa,智利」 Escuela de Negocios De Valparaíso, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, 1993.

問題討論:
  1. 相對於,
    a. 阿根廷本地企業
    b. 從已工業化國家到阿根廷發展的外來企業, Endesa在阿根廷的競爭優勢為何?
  2. Endesa於投資阿根廷事業時,所面臨的主要風險為何?
  3. 相較於其它可能的投資者或夥伴,當面臨這些風險時,Endesa的相對優勢為何?
  4. 這意含Endesa應如何將其在阿根廷投資系統化? (例如: 完全所有人,主要所有人,次要所有人,契約運作者等)


講課十三:期末考





Companies today confront an increasing array of choices of markets, of locations for value adding activities, and of modes of crossing borders. This course focuses on the international dimensions of strategy and organization, and provides a framework for formulating strategies in an increasingly complex world economy, and for making those strategies work effectively.

The first section of the course provides the basic frameworks for understanding competitiveness in international business at the level of the industry, location, and firm. These frameworks identify the opportunities presented in a dynamic global environment. But taking advantages of those opportunities faces enormous managerial challenges, and the second section of the course focuses on using and deepening those analytical tools in the context of specific problems and contexts. The goal of this course is to provide the foundations for taking effective action in the multi-faceted world of international business.



Readings

One required text has been ordered: Anil Gupta and Eleanor Westney, eds., Smart Globalization: Designing Global Strategies, Creating Global Networks (Jossey-Bass, 2003). In addition, we strongly recommend that you purchase a copy of Yves Doz, Jose Santos, and Peter Williamson, From Global to Metanational: How Companies Win in the Knowledge Economy (Harvard Business School Press, 2002).

In addition, there is a packet of readings available. Additional readings will be posted on the course website.


Course Requirements

Class participation (25%): Attendance at classes is expected, and students that must miss a class should inform the professor in advance. Active participation in class discussion is the most important aspect of the class participation grade, but it is not the only one. Identifying current relevant stories in the business press and sharing them with the professor and the class through the class website is another route to class participation.

2 case write-ups (15% each)

In-class final exam (45%)


Part I: Tools For Analysis

Lecture #1: Introduction

Readings:
Check course website for background reading for first class - some short business press readings that illustrate challenges of international business today.

Engardio, Pete, Aaron Bernstein, and Manjeet Kripalani. "Is Your Job Next?" Business Week. February 3, 2003.


Lecture #2: Industry Factors

Readings:
Prahalad, C. K., and Yves Doz. "Mapping the Characteristics of a Business." Chapter 2 in The Multinational Mission. The Free Press, 1987.

Lessard, Donald R. "Frameworks for Global Strategic Analysis." Journal of Strategic Management Education. Senate Hall Academic Publishing, 2003.

Case Study: The Pharmaceutical Industry (five readings on course website):

  1. The Pharmaceutical Industry: Changing Technologies
    Excerpt from: "The Pharmaceutical Industry." The Economist, February 21, 1998, pp. 3-5.

  2. Key Strategic Issues in the Pharmaceutical Industry
    Summary based on: Huff, Anne Sigismund, James Oran Huff, and Pamela S. Barr. When Firms Change Direction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

  3. "Risks and Rewards in the Global Market Place"
    Wechsler, Jill. "Risks and Rewards in the Global Market Place." Pharmaceutical Technology Europe Vol. 13, No. 5. May 2001, pp. 20. Copyright 2001, Gale Group, Inc. and Advanstar Communications, Inc.

  4. Profiles of Four Leading Pharmaceutical Firms
    Information collected from Hoover's Online (http://www.hoovers.com) and Datamonitor (http://www.datamonitor.com) about: Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Merck, and Novartis AG.

  5. A Note on the Japanese Pharmaceutical Industry

Discussion Questions:

  1. What do you see as the key drivers of change in the pharmaceutical industry over the decades, in terms of the pressures for local responsiveness and the pressures for cross-border integration? What would you predict for the next decade?
  2. What strategic responses from firms are sustainable in this changing environment? What might affect their choice of positioning?


Lecture #3: Location Factors: National Roots of Competitive Advantage

Readings:
Michael, Porter. "The Competitive Advantage of Nations." Article No. 90211. Harvard Business Review 90-2. March-April 1990, pp. 73-93.

Case: P. Ghemawat, "The Indian Software Industry at the Millenium." Harvard Business Case No. 9-700-036. Boston: Harvard Business School, July 31, 2000.

Discussion Questions:

  1. What are India's most important location advantages, in terms of the Porter model? Does India fit the "Diamond" model of a competitive location?
  2. If you were the CEO of a major US software company, would you consider setting up a subsidiary in India?
  3. If you were the CEO of one of the top Indian companies described briefly in the case (Tata Consultancy Services, Wipro, Infosys), what would your strategy be in the future for leveraging India's location advantages and addressing its weaknesses?


Lecture #4: Firm-Specific Advantages: Location-Based Advantages, Location-Bound Advantages, and Capabilties.


Readings:
Kogut, Bruce. "Designing Global Strategies: Comparative and Competitive Value-Added Chains." Chapter 1 in Gupta and Westney.

Westney, Eleanor. "A Note on Sequential Models of Internationalization." (Course Website)

Deveny, Kathleen. "McWorld? McDonald's Can Make a Big Mac Anywhere, But Duplicating Its Culture Abroad Won't Be So Easy." Business Week. October 13, 1986, pp. 78-86.

Serwer, Andrew E. "McDonald's Conquers the World." Fortune. October 17, 1994, pp. 103-116.

Discussion Questions:

  1. To what extent did McDonald's firm-specific advantage rest on the location advantages of its home base (the United States)? How did this affect its internationalization process (if at all)? How might it affect McDonald's international expansion in the future?
  2. What capabilities did McDonald's have to develop in the course of its internationalization process? How did it do this?


Lecture #5: Changing Models of Cross-Border Business

Readings:
Bartlett, Christopher A., and Sumantra Ghoshal. "Managing Across Borders: New Organizational Responses." Chapter 7 in Gupta and Westney.

Case: Westney, Eleanor. "ABB: From Icon to Crisis." MIT Sloan School of Management. (Course Website)

Discussion Questions:

  1. Was ABB's organization really as well-suited to its business strategy in the early 1990s as researchers seemed to think? What were its strengths and weaknesses?
  2. Why did ABB weaken the geographic side of its matrix over time? What were the advantages and disadvantages of doing so?
  3. What do you think of Centermann's 2001 re-organization? What alternatives might ABB have considered?


Lecture #6: Changing Dynamics of Global Competition

Readings:
Yip, George. "Global Strategy - In a World of Nations." Chapter 2 in Gupta and Westney.

Case: Westney, Eleanor. "Shimano." MIT Sloan School of Management. (Course Website)

Discussion Questions:
  1. Does Shimano's home base fit Porter's definition of an advantaged location? Did the advantages or disadvantages of its location change over time? If so, how did Shimano respond - does it fit Porter's framework of a global strategy?
  2. Would you recommend that Shimano develop additional functions in North America (besides sales and service) as it has in Asia and in Europe? Why or why not?


Part II: Managing Across Borders

Lecture #7: Developing Firm-specific Advantages from Being International - The Globalization of Markets

Readings:
Hart, Stuart, and Mark Milstein. "Global Sustainability and the Creative Destruction of Industries." Chapter 6 in Gupta and Westney.

Case: Bartlett, Christopher A., and Anthony St. George. "Acer America: Development of the Aspire." Harvard Business Case No. 9-399-011. Boston: Harvard Business School, 2001.

Discussion Questions:

  1. Hart and Milstein advocate a segmentation of markets into three categories. What are the implications of their model for MNCs from developed countries? From developing countries? For developing countries?
  2. What is your evaluation of Acer's market strategy (its choice of markets and products)? What is your assessment of Acer's North American market strategy?
  3. What were the key problems faced by Acer in developing the Aspire? What recommendations would you make to Acer for future market strategies and for product development, based on this experience?


Lecture #8: Developing Firm-specific Advantages from Being International - The Globalization of the Supply Chain


Readings:
Levy, David. "Lean Production in an International Supply Chain." Chapter 3 in Gupta and Westney.

Case Study: Ferdows, Kasra. "Making the Most of Foreign Factories." Article No. 97204. Harvard Business Review. March-April 1997.

Discussion Questions:

  1. Levy's article is based on intensive research conducted in the mid-1990s. Do you think conditions have changed to make his assessment of the challenges of managing global supply chains less valid?
  2. Some of Ferdows' key examples focus on the changing role of Singapore in global supply chains. The operations in Singapore are, however, nearly all wholly-owned subsidiaries of MNCs. What differences does it make when the operations are locally owned, as they in Taiwan, for example?


Lecture #9: Developing Firm-specific Advantages from Being International - The Globalization of Technology

Readings:

Birkinshaw, Julian M., and J. N. Fry. "Subsidiary Initiatives to Develop New Markets." Chapter 9 in Gupta and Westney.

Case Study: Chapters 1 and 2: Doz, Yves, José Santos and Peter Williamson. 「From Global to Metanational: How Companies Win in the Knowledge Economy.」 Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2001.

Also press clippings on Novartis' corporate R&D center in Cambridge: Krasner, Jeffrey. 「Drug Giant Novartis Seen Leasing Cambridge R&D Space.」 The Boston Globe. May 3, 2002, pp. E1.

Discussion Questions:

  1. What are the key challenges that a firm like Novartis faces in setting up a new research center outside its major centers of technology development? What recommendations would you make to Novartis?


Lecture #10: Expanding Abroad: Cross-Border M&A

Readings:
Ghemawat, Pankaj, and Fariborz Ghadar. "The Dubious Logic of Global Megamergers." Article No. R00405. Harvard Business Review. July-August 2000.

Discussion Questions:

  1. The business press greeted the Daimler-Chrysler merger as a sound strategic move that would have highly positive implications for both. It was far more skeptical about the soundness of the Nissan-Renault venture (and Renault was a second choice partner for Nissan). Yet the Nissan-Renault venture today is seen as much more successful. Why did the business press get it wrong - or do you think they got it right, but that a longer term is necessary to judge the success or failure?
  2. Do these two cases fit or not fit Ghemawat and Ghadar's criticism of "global megamergers"?
  3. What do you see as the key lessons for cross-border merger and acquisition from the two cases? Explain why you identified those lessons.


Lecture #11: Expanding Abroad: From Emerging Markets

Readings:
Dawar, Niraj, and Tony Frost. "Competing with Giants: Survival Strategies for Emerging Market Companies." Article 99203. Harvard Business Review. March-April 1999.

Case: Nanda, Ashish, and Leopoldo E. Lopez Mendoza. "PDVSA & Citgo (A): Seeking Stability in an Uncertain World." HBS Case No. 9-899-220. Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999.

Nanda, Ashish, and Leopoldo E. Lopez Mendoza. "PDVSA & Citgo (B): Fully Integrated?" Harvard Business Case No. 9-899-221. Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999.

Discussion Questions:

  1. Did PDVSA achieve the goals which motivated its Citgo acquisition? Did Citgo achieve its goals in the acquisition? Why or why not?
  2. Do these two cases fit or not fit Ghemawat and Ghadar's criticism of "global megamergers"?

Lecture #12: Expanding Abroad: Cross-Border Risk Management

Case: Skoknic, Esteban S., and Jon Martínez. "Endesa, Chile." Escuela de Negocios de Valparaíso, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, 1993.

Discussion Questions:
  1. What are Endesa's competitive advantages in Argentina relative to:
    a. Argentine firms
    b. firms from industrialized countries?
  2. What are the principle types of risks that Endesa face in investing in Argentine activities?
  3. What is Endesa's comparative advantage in taking on these risks relation to other possible investors or partners?
  4. What does this imply for how Endesa should structure its investment in Argentina (full owner, majority owner, minority owner, contract operator, etc.)?


Lecture #13: In-Class Final Exam




 
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