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燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:王以仁(簡介並寄信)
編輯:朱學(簡介並寄信)



課程單元 相關閱讀資料/摘要
導論
Introduction
1 導論
Introduction

Madnick, Stuart, and Y. Richard Wang. 用於策略性優勢之複合資訊系統架構。. 於1988年之夏威夷系統科學國際會議發表。 1988年一月,第35-43頁。

策略應用的一個重要部份,牽涉到公司間的連繫或公司內的整合。此部份的應用,需要多個系統一起運作。此種資訊系統被稱為 複合資訊系統 (CIS). 本文介紹通往CIS廣泛基礎的各項研究議題與方向。本文同時也對CIS及其相關研究領域的策略性、技術性、和組織性議題作研討。
(朱註:該會議的全文檔案在此。)

Madnick, Stuart, and Y. Richard Wang. A Framework of Composite Information Systems for Strategic Advantage. Proceedings of the 1988 Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January 1988, pp. 35-43.

One important category of strategic applications involves inter-corporate linkage or intra-corporate integration. Applications in this category require multiple systems to work together. This category of Information Systems is referred to as Composite Information Systems (CIS). This paper presents the research issues and directions that may lead to a comprehensive foundation of CIS. This paper also investigates the strategic, technical, and organizational issues involved in CIS and the corresponding research directions.

Evans, Philip, and Thomas Wurster. 虛擬商務的真象。波士頓.麻州:哈佛商業評論, 1999年11-12月,第85-94頁。

本文探討影響範圍(Reach)、豐富度(Richness)、參與度(Affiliation)、和帶領(Navigator)角色的概念。影響範圍指的是存取和連結以及來源和接收的程度。豐富度指的是資訊系統給予和搜集的深度與詳細程度。參與度指的是使用者表現出感興趣的程度。「領航者」的重心將具有巨大的力量和市場價值,而「變化的」帶領角色將能夠幫助我們對各個電子零售商作比較。(朱註:本閱讀資料要花錢買)

Evans, Philip, and Thomas Wurster. Getting Real About Virtual Commerce. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review, November-December 1999, pp. 85-94.

This paper discusses the notions of reach, richness, affiliation, and the role of navigators. Reach is the degree of access and connections, sources and receivers. Richness is the depth and detail of information system gives and collects. Affiliation is the degree to which the user's interests are represented. There is a major focus on "navigators" which will have enormous power and market value and "meta" navigators which can help compare multiple e-retailers.

I. 策略性連結
I. Strategic Connectivity
2 I. 資訊科技、公司層級策略、和競爭優勢
Information Technology, Corporate Strategy, and Competitive Advantage

Porter, Michael, and Victor Millar. 資訊如何帶給你競爭優勢。 波士頓.麻州:哈佛商業評論, 1985年7-8月,第149-160頁。

從波特被廣泛引用的競爭策略競爭優勢 中,歸納出關鍵概念。本文指出影響產業獲利能力的 五力

  1. 新競爭者的進入
  2. 替代性商品的威脅
  3. 下游的勢力
  4. 供應商的勢力,以及
  5. 與目前對手間的競爭。

本文也提出三個邁向成功的一般性策略:

  1. 成本領導者
  2. 差異化,以及
  3. 利基市場。

另一個重要的概念 價值鏈。價值鏈的五個構成要素為:

  1. 內運物流
  2. 營運
  3. 配送物流
  4. 行銷和銷售,以及
  5. 服務。

還有三個基礎活動支援價值鏈:

  1. 人力資源管理
  2. 研發,以及
  3. 採購。

價值鏈提供了一個系統化的方法,來檢視公司內的所有動作。價值鏈間的連繫或「連結」,是產生策略性優勢的重要方法。此外,本文也指出三個 科技影響競爭力的方式 :

  1. 科技改變了產業結構
  2. 科技促進低成本和差異化策略,以及
  3. 科技造成大量新事業。

Porter, Michael, and Victor Millar. How Information Gives You Competitive Advantage. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review, July-August 1985, pp. 149-160.

Presents a summary of the key ideas from Porter's widely-cited books Competitive Strategy and Competitive Advantage. It identifies five forces that determine industry profitability:

  1. the entry of new competitors
  2. the threat of substitutes
  3. the power of buyers
  4. the power of suppliers, and
  5. rivalry among the existing competitors.

It also proposes three generic strategies for success:

  1. cost leadership
  2. differentiation, and
  3. focus.

Another important concept is the value chain. The five major components of the value chain are:

  1. inbound logistics
  2. operations
  3. outbound logistics
  4. marketing & sales, and
  5. service.

There are three infrastructure activities that support the value chain:

  1. human resource management
  2. technology development, and
  3. procurement.

The value chain provides a systematic way to examine all the activities of a firm. Linkages, or "connectivity", between value chains is an important way to exploit strategic advantages. Furthermore, this article identifies three ways that technology affects competition:

  1. it alters industry structure
  2. it supports cost and differentiation strategies, and
  3. it spawns new businesses.

Porter, Michael E. 策略和網際網路哈佛商業評論, 2001年3月,第63-78頁。

同樣也是用五力分析與價值鏈模型,但是以網際網路為主題。他認為網際網路並沒有改變「舊遊戲規則」。他打破許多網際網路在近年來逐漸開朗的神話,並闡明「舊遊戲規則」也就是「新遊戲規則」。他同時也建議了六個策略定位的原則:

  1. 正確的目標
  2. 注意價值
  3. 特有的價值鏈
  4. 考慮其代價
  5. 適合度,以及
  6. 對目標的堅持。

Porter, Michael E. Strategy and the Internet. Harvard Business Review, March 2001, pp. 63-78.

Also uses the five forces model and value chain model, but in the context of the Internet. He argues that the Internet does not change the "old rules". He dispels many Internet myths, which have become more obvious in recent years, and illustrates that the "old rules" are also the "new rules." He also suggests six principles for Strategic Positioning:

  1. right goal
  2. value proposition
  3. distinctive value chain
  4. trade-offs
  5. fit, and
  6. continuity of direction.
3 策略個案研討(嬌生個案)
Strategic Case Study (Johnson & Johnson Case)

Ross, Jeanne. 嬌生:建構支援全球營運的基礎架構。麻省理工學院資訊系統研究中心。學者著作 283,1995年9月,第1-10頁。
Ross, Jeanne. Johnson & Johnson: Building an Infrastructure to Support Global Operations. MIT Center for Information Systems Research. Working Paper 283, September 1995, pp. 1-10.

Madnick, Stuart. 新一代全球外匯交易系統(FXX)。1998年1月,第1-2頁【特別為 15.578 摘錄】。
Madnick, Stuart. Next Generation Global Foreign Exchange System (FXX). January 1998, pp. 1-2 [special excerpt prepared for 15.578].

關於以上兩個個案,一個是完整的、一個是小型的,但都是描述整合現有資訊,以支援所需全球營運的情況。

Both of these cases, one full-length, one a mini-case, illustrate situations where integrating existing information to support global operations was necessary.

4 組織間和組織內系統 (麥克森個案)
Inter- and Intra-Organizational Systems (McKesson Case)

Short, James, and N. Venkatramen. Short, James, and N. Venkatramen. 在商業流程再造之後:重新定義 Baxter 的商業網路。 Cambridge, MA: MIT 史隆管理評論, 1992 秋,第7-21頁。

本文描述美國醫療供應商─Baxter 資訊系統的演進。我們將在課堂上討論許多與麥克森個案類似的情況,麥克森個案並無閱讀資料。

Short, James, and N. Venkatramen. Beyond Business Process Redesign: Redefining Baxter's Business Network. Cambridge, MA: MIT Sloan Management Review, Fall 1992, pp. 7-21.

This reading describes the evolution of the American Hospital Supply - Baxter information systems. There are many parallels to the McKesson case that we will discuss in class. There are no readings on the McKesson case.

Venkatraman, N. 實現資訊科技的商業轉型。 劍橋,麻州:MIT 史隆管理評論,1992 秋,第7-21頁。

本文描述美國醫療供應商─Baxter 資訊系統的演進。我們將在課堂上討論許多與麥克森個案類似的情況,麥克森個案並無閱讀資料。

Venkatraman, N. IT-Enabled Business Transformation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Sloan Management Review, Winter 1994, pp. 73-87.

This reading highlights the different ways that IT can impact and transform a business. Many of these different ways will be seen in the McKesson discussion.

5 匯集者:網際網路中的新事業
Aggregators: The New Business on the Internet

Madnick, Stuart, and Michael Siegel. 抓住機會:開拓網頁匯集。抓住機會:開拓網頁匯集。MIT 史隆管理學院學者著作,2001年12月(將出現在 MISQ Executive)。

本文檢視匯集者的發展,其中匯集者是指一組織,不論事先是否有所規畫,廣泛地蒐集各種來源的資訊,並藉事後的整合予以加值。其中最關鍵的兩種匯集者為比較式和關連式匯集者。本文亦提出匯集者在產業進入點的建議,以及描述其對價值鏈的影響。

Madnick, Stuart, and Michael Siegel. Seize the Opportunity: Exploiting Web Aggregation. MIT Sloan School of Management Working Paper, December 2001 (to appear in MISQ Executive).

This paper examines the development of aggregators, entities that collect information from a wide range of sources, with or without prior arrangements, and add value through post-aggregation services. Two key types of aggregators are comparison and relationship aggregators. It also suggests different business models as possible aggregator entry points into an industry and describes their impact on the value chain.

II. 實體連結
II. Physical Connectivity
6 基礎通訊科技和概念
Basic Communications Technology and Concepts

管理1990年代的資訊科技:通訊科技。波士頓,麻州:哈佛商業評論, 1995年8月17日,第1-21頁。文章編號9-195-270。
Managing IT in the 1990s: Communications Technology. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review, August 17, 1995, pp. 1-21. Article No. 9-195-270.

Rockstrom, Anders, and Bengt Zdebel. 網路生存策略IEEE 通訊期刊,1998年1月,第36-40頁。
Rockstrom, Anders, and Bengt Zdebel. A Network Strategy for Survival. IEEE Communications Magazine, January 1998, pp. 36-40.

7 區域網路
Local Area Networks

Vargo, John, and Ray Hunt. 區域網路 ─ 原理和元件。第五章 商用電信:策略及應用。 Richard Irwin,1996年,第167-223頁。

本文提出各種不同區域網路架構的概述。其重心在媒介(例:雙絞線、同軸電纜、光纖)、拓撲(例:匯流排、樹狀、星狀)、和存取控制(例:CSMA/CD、記號環網路)。

Vargo, John, and Ray Hunt. Local Area Networks - Principles and Components. Chap. 5 in Telecommunications in Business: Strategy and Application. Richard Irwin, 1996, pp. 167-223.

This paper presents an overview of the various Local Area Network (LAN) architectures. The focus is on media (e.g., twisted pair, coax, optical fiber), topology (e.g., bus, tree, ring) and access control (e.g., CSMA/CD, token ring).

8 廣域網路
Wide Area Networks

全球資訊網和網際網路科技。波士頓,麻州:哈佛商業評論,1998年6月1日,第1-11頁。文章編號9-198-020。
The Worldwide Web and Internet Technology. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review, June 1, 1998, pp. 1-11. Article No. 9-198-020.

9 網路協定
Network Protocols

Stallings, William.OSI參考模型。第二章。網路標準:OSI、區域網路、和都會網路標準入門。Addison-Wesley,1993年,第17-56頁。

本文提出基於國際標準組織的OSI參考模型之通訊網路概觀。OSI參考模型包括以下七層協定:

  1. 實體層
  2. 資料連結層
  3. 網路層
  4. 傳輸層
  5. 會談層
  6. 表識層,以及
  7. 應用層。

Stallings, William. The OSI Reference Model. Chap. 2 in Networking Standards: A Guide to OSI, LAN, and MAN Standards. Addison-Wesley, 1993, pp. 17-56.

Presents a good overview of communication network concepts based upon the ISO Reference Model of Open System Interconnection (OSI). The OSI model consists of seven layers of protocols:

  1. physical
  2. data link
  3. network
  4. transport
  5. session
  6. presentation, and
  7. application.
10 新興科技一
Emerging Technologies I

Anthes, Gary. 「網路獲利」的壓力電腦世界, 1998年1月5日,第38-40頁。
Anthes, Gary. The Strain for 'Net Gain'. ComputerWorld, January 5, 1998, pp. 38-40.

Nolan, Richard L., and Robert S. Borsi. 非同步傳輸模式(ATM), 波士頓,麻州:哈佛商業評論,1996年10月21日,第1-12頁。文章編號9-397-014。
Nolan, Richard L., and Robert S. Borsi. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review, October 21, 1996, pp. 1-12. Article No. 9-397-014.

11 新興科技二
Emerging Technologies II

Morgan, Cynthia. 追求連線速度視窗雜誌, 1997年12月。
Morgan, Cynthia. Wired for Speed. Windows Magazine, December 1997.
(http://www.techweb.com/winmag/library/1997/1201/featu136.htm)

12 技術個案研討 ─ 麻省理工學院的網路設定
Technical Case Study - MIT's Network Configuration
III. 邏輯連線
III. Logical Connectivity
13 分散式同質資料庫
Distributed Homogeneous Databases

Lindsay, Bruce. R*的回顧:分散式資料庫管理系統Proceedings of the IEEE 75,第五號,1987年5月,第668-673頁。

本文所介紹的R*,雖然具實驗性質,但公認是第一個全功能分散式資料庫系統。本文介紹了此計畫的歷史,以及解釋發展時的挑戰與困難點,例如同步控制、效能、與可靠度。

Lindsay, Bruce. A Retrospective of R*: A Distributed Database Management System. Proceedings of the IEEE 75, No. 5, May 1987, pp. 668-673.

This paper describes R*, reputed to be the first full-function though experimental, distributed database system. It provides both a history of the project and explains the challenges and difficulties, such as concurrency control, performance, and reliability, in implementing such a system.

Ozsu, M. Tamer, and Patrick Valduriez. 分散式平行處理資料庫系統ACM Computing Surveys 28,1號,1996年3月,第125-128頁。
Ozsu, M. Tamer, and Patrick Valduriez. Distributed and Parallel Database Systems. ACM Computing Surveys 28, No. 1, March 1996, pp. 125-128.

14 期中考
Mid-term Exam
15 分散式異質資料庫
Distributed Heterogeneous Databases

Thomas, Gomer, Glenn Thompson, Chin-wan Chung, Edward Barkmeyer, Fred Carter, Majorie Templeton, Stephen Fox, 與 Berl Hartman. Heterogeneous Distributed Database Systems for Production Use. ACM Computing Surveys 22, No. 3, September 1990, pp. 237-265.
Thomas, Gomer, Glenn Thompson, Chin-wan Chung, Edward Barkmeyer, Fred Carter, Majorie Templeton, Stephen Fox, and Berl Hartman. 分散式異質資料庫於生產製造之應用ACM Computing Surveys 22, 第3號,1990年9月,第237-265頁。

Ozsu, M. Tamer, and Patrick Valduriez. 分散式資料庫第理系統之架構分散式資料庫系統,第四章。第二版。Prentice-Hall,1999年,第82-100頁。

本文從以下幾點來描述此系統:(1) 自行控制的能力 (2) 實體分散的能力,以及 (3) 資訊的異質性。本文亦提出各種不同的架構,包括主從架構、分散式資料庫、與multibases。

Ozsu, M. Tamer, and Patrick Valduriez. Distributed DBMS Architecture. Chap. 4 in Distributed Database Systems. 2nd Edition. Prentice-Hall, 1999, pp. 82-100.

This paper characterizes systems by degree of (1) autonomy of control, (2) physical distribution, and (3) heterogeneity of information. It also presents various architectures, include client/server, distributed databases, and multibases.

16 了解資料庫整合
View Integration Among Databases

Batini, C., M. Lenzerin, and S. B. Navathe. 資料庫綱領整合方法的比較性分析ACM Computing Surveys 18,第四號,1986年12月,第323-364頁。

「綱領」指的是組織需要管理的所有資料。在分散式資料庫系統和組織間系統中,可能會需要使用多個組織中的資料。本文提出整合個別資料庫綱領之議題。並討論綱領相異的各種原因,和解決這些問題的不同方法。

Batini, C., M. Lenzerin, and S. B. Navathe. A Comparative Analysis of Methodologies for Database Schema Integration. ACM Computing Surveys 18, No. 4, December 1986, pp. 323-364.

A "schema" is a representation of all the data to be managed by an organization. In the context of distributed database systems and inter-organizational systems, it may be necessary to use data that spans two or more organizations. This paper addresses the issue of integrating the individual database schemas. It discusses various causes of schema differences and various approaches to solving these problems.

17 資料庫式網頁
Web as a Database

Alter, Allan. 麻省理工學院教授著作:開創新資訊網秩序。 電腦世界, 1997年6月20日。

這篇短文介紹了,讓我們從傳統超文字標記語言中更容易取出資訊的方法,並激發此種科技的需求。

Alter, Allan. MIT Professor Works to Create a New Web Order. ComputerWorld, June 20, 1997.

This brief article describes technology that facilitates the extraction of information from traditional HTML web pages and motivates the need for such technologies.

Firat, A., S. Madnick, and M. Siegel. Cameleon網頁包裝引擎。VLDB2000電子商務技術工作小組會議報告2000年9月14-15日,【亦可見MIT史隆管理學院教授著作4128】,第1-9頁。

介紹網頁包裝技術,使半結構化的網頁,在與SQL關連式資料庫結合後,可以被存取。

Firat, A., S. Madnick, and M. Siegel. The Caméléon Web Wrapper Engine. Proceedings of the VLDB2000 Workshop on Technologies for E-Services. September 14-15, 2000, [also MIT Sloan School of Management Working Paper 4128], pp. 1-9.

Describes the web wrapping technology for enabling semi-structured web sites to be accessed as if they were SQL relational databases.

Madnick, S. 誤入歧途的銀彈:XML在資訊整合上的可與不可第三屆資訊整合與網頁應用服務國際會議報告。2001年9月,【亦可見MIT史隆管理學院教授著作4185】,第1-10頁。

介紹XML的能力,包括對HTML的改進,和本身的限制,特別是語意問題 ── 在下一段課程中,有更多的描述。

Madnick, S. The Misguided Silver Bullet: What XML will and will NOT do to help Information Integration. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Information Integration and Web-Based Applications and Services. September 2001, [also MIT Sloan School of Management Working Paper 4185], pp. 1-10.

Describes both the capabilities of XML, that improve upon HTML, and its limitations, especially with addressing semantic problems - more about this in next session.

Ozsu, M. Tamer, and Patrick Valduriez.第16.3節:全球資訊網分散式資料庫系統。 第二版。Prentice-Hall,1999年第581-588頁。

討論半結構化網頁的概念,以及取出資訊時的包裝和傳遞架構。同時也介紹了Tsimmis、Garlic、Information Manifold、和Disco計畫。

Ozsu, M. Tamer, and Patrick Valduriez. Section 16.3: World Wide Web. Distributed Database Systems. 2nd Edition. Prentice-Hall, 1999, pp. 581-588.

Discusses concept of semi-structured web pages and architectures involving wrappers and mediators for extracting information. Also describes Tsimmis, Garlic, Information Manifold, and Disco projects.

18 語意整合
Semantic Integration

Madnick, Stuart.資料瓊斯與巴別塔:大規模異質性語意的挑戰。Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE Meta-Data Conference 1999年4月6-7日,第1-13頁。

亦可見:http://computer.org/proceedings/meta/ 1999/papers/84/smadnick.html

介紹異質性語意的問題 ── 同一個字,有不同的意思。例如「售價」指的價格是否含稅、是美金還是英鎊等問題。

Madnick, Stuart. Metadata Jones and the Tower of Babel: The Challenge of Large-Scale Semantic Heterogeneity. Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE Meta-Data Conference, April 6-7, 1999, pp. 1-13.

Also at: http://computer.org/proceedings/meta/ 1999/papers/84/smadnick.html

Describes the problem of semantic heterogeneity - where the same "word" may have multiple interpretations. For example, does "price" include tax or not, is it in Dollars or Pounds, etc.

Berners-Lee, Tim, James Hendler, and Ora Lassila. 語意網頁科學人,2001年5月。
Berners-Lee, Tim, James Hendler, and Ora Lassila. The Semantic Web. Scientific American, May 2001.

Bressan, S., C. Goh, N. Levina, S. Madnick, A. Shah, and M. Siegel. 內文交換系統中的文意表達與推論Journal of Applied Intelligence13,2000年,【亦可見MIT史隆管理學院教授著作4133】,第165-180頁。
Bressan, S., C. Goh, N. Levina, S. Madnick, A. Shah, and M. Siegel. Context Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in the Context Interchange System. Journal of Applied Intelligence 13, 2000, [also MIT Sloan School of Management Working Paper 4133], pp. 165-180.

19 元件架構和網頁服務
Component Architectures & Web Services

Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J.網頁服務:超越迷思Computer。 2002年2月,第18-21頁。
Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. Web Services: Beyond the Hype. Computer. February 2002, pp. 18-21.

Hansen, Mark, Stuart Madnick, and Michael Siegel. 以網頁服務達成流程整合。MIT史隆管理學院教授著作。2002年2月28日,第1-15頁。
Hansen, Mark, Stuart Madnick, and Michael Siegel. Process Aggregation Using Web Services. MIT Sloan School of Management Working Paper. February 28, 2002, pp. 1-15.

Seetharaman, Krishnan. 使用CORBA連接Communications of the ACM 41,1998年10月,第34-36頁。
Seetharaman, Krishnan. The CORBA Connection. Communications of the ACM 41, No. 10, October 1998, pp. 34-36.

IV. 組織性連結
IV. Organizational Connectivity
20 鬆散耦合組織
Loosely-coupled Organizations

Ross, Jeanne. ERP革命:生存與興盛。 MIT 資訊系統研究中心教授著作。1998年11月,第1-10頁。

介紹ERP的推動:基礎建設(一般平台)、能力(流程改善、資料能見度)、以及效能(降低成本、決策支援、回應顧客)。主要問題和成功因素:(1) 公開的標準,(2) 不斷增加的資源,(3) 管理報告,(4) 處理抗拒。重點是標準化的流程和資料是彈性的關鍵。

Ross, Jeanne. The ERP Revolution: Surviving Versus Thriving. MIT CISR Working Paper. November 1998, pp. 1-10.

Describes motivations for ERPs: Infrastructure (common platform), Capability (process improve, data visibility), and Performance (cost reduction, decision making, customer responsiveness). Major difficulties and success factors: (1) metrics, (2) on-going resources, (3) management reporting, and (4) addressing resistance. Major point is that standardized processes and data is key to flexibility.

Weick, Karl. 以鬆散耦合系統作為教育機構Administrative Science Quarterly21,1976年3月,第1-19頁。

提出鬆散耦合組織的概念,並以教育機構為例。它認為雖有些行動和事件常常看似「無理」,但其實是因為我們沒有徹底了解來龍去脈。另外,作者還提出鬆散耦合的七大優點。

Weick, Karl. Educational Organizations as Loosely Coupled Systems. Administrative Science Quarterly 21, March 1976, pp. 1-19.

Presents the notion of "loosely coupled" organizations, using educational organizations as examples. It argues that although certain actions or events may seem "irrational," it is often because we do not fully understand what is going on. Furthermore, he presents seven advantages of loose coupling.

21 市場與階級:組織性連結
Markets and Hierarchies: Organizational Coupling

Williamson, Oliver. 組織性失敗結構市場與階級, 第二章。1975年,第20-40頁。

提出有限理性、不確定性、複雜性、和機會主義等關鍵議題。

Williamson, Oliver. The Organizational Failures Framework. Chap. 2 in Markets and Hierarchies. 1975, pp. 20-40.

Presents key issues of bounded rationality, uncertainty, complexity, and opportunism.

Williamson, Oliver, and William Ouchi. 市場和階級研究方案:起源、內涵、和未來透視組織設計和行為, 第八章。A. H. Van de Ven and W. F. Joyce, eds. 紐約:1981年,第347-370頁。 [重印於 權力、效率、和制度:「市場和階級」典範的關鍵性評價。 J. Turk and P. Willman, eds. 倫敦,1983年,第13-34頁,以及組織理論, Henry Tosi, ed. 紐約:1984年,第11頁】

專注在交易成本經濟學。討論垂直整合和多角化的理由。「官僚」與「部落」產生的議題。並討論資產特性。

Williamson, Oliver, and William Ouchi. The Markets and Hierarchies Program of Research: Origins, Implications, Prospects. Chap. 8 in Perspectives on Organizing Design and Behavior. A. H. Van de Ven and W. F. Joyce, eds. New York: 1981, pp. 347-370. [Reprinted in Power, Efficiency and Institutions: A Critical Appraisal of the "Markets and Hierarchies" Paradigm, J. Turk and P. Willman, eds. London: 1983, pp. 13-34, and in Theories of Organization, Henry Tosi, ed. New York: 1984, pp. 11.]

Focus on transaction cost economics. Discusses reasons for vertical integration and multi-divisions. Issues of "bureaucracy" vs. "clan" raised. Asset specificity discussed.

22 標準的形成
Development of Standards

Goodhue, Dale, Michael Wybo, and Laurie Kirsch.資料整合對資訊系統成本和利益的影響MIS Quarterly, 1992年9月,第293-311頁。
Goodhue, Dale, Michael Wybo, and Laurie Kirsch. The Impact of Data Integration on the Costs and Benefits of Information Systems. MIS Quarterly, September 1992, pp. 293-311.

Goodhue, Dale, Michael Wybo, and Laurie Kirsch. 策略性資料規畫:從實務學到的課程MIS Quarterly, 1992年3月,第11-34頁。
Goodhue, Dale, Michael Wybo, and Laurie Kirsch. Strategic Data Planning: Lessons From the Field. MIS Quarterly, March 1992, pp. 11-34.

Bader, Joan, Chris Hayward, Stuart Madnick, Jonathan Razo, and Michael Siegel. 涵蓋資本市場/金融服務公司的資料標準化分析。 MIT 史隆管理學院教授著作。1999年8月16日,第1-16頁。
Bader, Joan, Chris Hayward, Stuart Madnick, Jonathan Razo, and Michael Siegel. An Analysis of Data Standardization Across a Capital Markets / Financial Services Firm. MIT Sloan School of Management Working Paper. August 16, 1999, pp. 1-16.

23 推動策略聯盟和組織轉型
Motivating Strategic Alliances & Organizational Transformation

Kotter, John.領導變革:為什麼會轉型失敗。波士頓,麻州:哈佛商業評論, 1995年3-4月,第59-67頁。
Kotter, John. Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review, March-April 1995, pp. 59-67.

Osborn, Charley, Stuart Madnick, and Y. Richard Wang. 推動複合資訊系統的策略聯盟:以地區大型醫院為例Journal of Management Information Science6,第三號,1989-90年,冬,第99-117頁。

本文探索複合式資訊系統下策略性目標的本質,即組織間系統,同時並提出由三佪技術增加成功機率:(1) 雙向利益,(2) 合作付出,(3) 不對稱控制。

Osborn, Charley, Stuart Madnick, and Y. Richard Wang. Motivating Strategic Alliances for Composite Information Systems: The Case of a Major Regional Hospital. Journal of Management Information Science 6, No. 3, Winter 1989-90, pp. 99-117.

This paper explores the nature of strategic goals underlying composite information systems, also referred to as inter-organizational systems, and ways to increase the likelihood of success through three techniques: (1) bi-directional benefits, (2) co-operative pay-out, and (3) asymmetric control.

V. 結尾
V. Finale
24 課程總結與評論
Course Summary and Review
25 挑選同學上台報告
Selected Student Presentations
26 期未考
Final Exam


 
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