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翻譯:林孝倫(簡介並寄信)
編輯:楊文芬(簡介並寄信)


I. 何謂行銷策略?
I. What is Marketing Strategy?

課程單元/讀物 作業
1 導論
Introduction.
2 Coors. 哈佛商學院
個案編號•9-388-014.
Coors. Harvard Business School Case #9-388-014.
1. 直到1970年代中期,Coors是非常成功的。它以往所採用的策略是什麼?
1. Coors was very successful through the mid-1970's. What was its strategy historically?

2. 在1977年到1985年間,Coors營運績效的改變和它的競爭者有何關連?為什麼?
2. How did Coors' operating performance change relative to its competitors between 1977 and 1985? Why?

3. Coors應該在維吉尼亞州﹝Virginia﹞建釀酒廠嗎?這項舉動能明顯地提升Coors的市場地位嗎?
3. Should Coors build a brewery in Virginia? Will it be able to improve its position significantly?
(譯註:依文法觀點,原文應翻為「它能明顯地提升它的市場地位嗎?」,但這個問題句意空洞,故本人擅改之。)

4. 如果有任何因素能影響Coors做出不同的決策,那會是什麼因素?
4. What, if anything, might have Coors done differently?
II. 何謂發現利潤機會策略?
II. What is Finding Profit Opportunities Strategy?

課程單元/讀物 作業
3 Prelude. 哈佛商學院
個案編號•#9-373-052.
Prelude. Harvard Business School Case #9-373-052.
1. Prelude的策略為何?
1. What is Prelude's strategy?

2. 在始於捕魚業終於零售業的這條價值鏈中,哪一個產業最有吸引力?
2. Along the value chain from fishing to retailing, which is the most attractive industry?
(譯註:此處價值鏈指產品在到達終端消費者前,層層的營運、轉手會對售價產生增值作用,也稱為產業價值鏈。)
3. Prelude應該怎麼做?
3. What should Prelude do?
4 迪士尼公司:娛樂業之王
哈佛商學院
個案編號•9-701-035
The Walt Disney Company: The Entertainment King. Harvard Business School Case #9-701-035.
1. 為什麼迪士尼公司會如此成功?
1. Why has Disney been so successful?

2. 「迪士尼」這個名字如何對公司的各個事業產生貢獻?
2. How does the Disney name contribute to each business?

3. 迪士尼公司接下來該怎麼做?
3. What should Disney do next?
5 任天堂 & 世嘉﹝SEGA﹞
哈佛商學院
個案編號•9-795-102 & 103 ﹝共兩篇﹞
Nintendo & Sega. Harvard Business School Case #9-795-102 & 103.
1. 在Atari時代的快速成長和破滅後,任天堂成功地再創家用視訊遊戲﹝即俗稱電視遊樂器﹞事業。它是怎麼辦到的?
1. Nintendo successfully recreated the home video game business following the Atari-era boom and bust. How did it do so?
(譯註:Atari是在在任天堂之前推出家用視訊遊戲系統的公司,其產品曾風靡一時。)
2. 任天堂如何從家用視訊遊戲事業中獲取價值?
2. How was Nintendo able to capture value from the home video game business?

3. 請評估NEC和世嘉在挑戰任天堂於家用視訊遊戲事業地位時,它們所採取的策略?
3. Evaluate NEC's and Sega's strategies for challenging Nintendo in the video game business.
6 瀏覽器大戰
哈佛商學院
個案編號•9-798-094.
Browser Wars. Harvard Business School Case #9-798-094.
1. 網景公司贏得了瀏覽器大戰第一回合的勝利,它獲勝的關鍵因素有哪些?為什麼其他競爭者無法快速複製它的成功模式?
1. Netscape won the first round of the browser wars. What were the critical drivers of Netscape's early success? Why didn't others quickly copy the Netscape formula?

2. 微軟公司贏得了瀏覽器大戰的第二回合。為什麼?又為什麼網景公司難以招架呢?
2. Microsoft won the second round of the browser wars. Why? Why was it difficult for Netscape to respond?

3. 瀏覽器市場佔有率狀態現在大約是50比50,這個狀態會穩定平衡下去嗎?五年之後市場上有幾個瀏覽器能存活下來呢?一個、兩個,或是很多個?為什麼?
3. The market for browsers is roughly 50-50 today. Is this a stable equilibrium? How many browsers will survive in the market in the next 5 or so years? One? Two? Many? Why?
(譯註:50-50平衡不知如何推算,應與現在事實有所出入。)

4. 為了讓網景瀏覽器的前途,Steve Case和美國線上應該怎麼做?你會怎麼建議比爾蓋茲繼續打這場瀏覽器大戰?
4. What should Steve Case and AOL do with Netscape's browser going forward? What would you tell Bill Gates to do in the browser war?
(譯註:Steve Case,前美國線上﹝AOL﹞的CEO,美國線上被時代華納集團併購後此人亦獲得續聘。)


III. 創造競爭優勢
III. Creating Competitive Advantage

課程單元/讀物 作業
7 論文:Wernerfelt著 《行銷設計之效率效標》
Wernerfelt. "An Efficiency Criterion for Marketing Design."

(譯註:本門課程的指導教授Wernerfelt,以提出「公司應以能掌握的有形、無形資源為擬定策略之依據」﹝即所謂的資源基礎觀點﹞而聞名學界。本文發表於Journal of Marketing Research 學術期刊
全文PDF)
8 EMI和電腦斷層掃描儀 ﹝A﹞. 哈佛商學院
個案編號•9-383-194.
EMI and the CT-scanner (A). HBS Harvard Business Case #9-383-194.
1. 要將這項技術轉換為可獲利的產品,需要哪些資源?
1. What resources are needed to turn this into a profitable product?

2. 如果EMI公司靠自己的力量來進行這項轉換,它應該如何取得這些資源?
2. If EMI does this on its own, how should it get these resources?

3. 依據1975年的世界需求,用以下的個或然率條件計算出市場需求預估。
條件:[with prob 10% demand X10 or less, with less, with prob 50% demand X50or less, with prob 90% demand X90 or less],根據這個預估值,你會如何設定你公司的生產產能?為什麼?
*編按:[ ]內的文字要查個案教材內之附表才能導出數字,個案討論時要求學生查表抓出數字,是常見的教學方法。
3. Make a probabilistic forecast [with prob 10% demand X10 or less, with less, with prob 50% demand X50or less, with prob 90% demand X90 or less] of world demand in 1975. Given this forecast, what should be your production capacity? Why?

9 Nutrasweet (A-G).
哈佛商學院

個案編號•9-794-079,…,085 ﹝共七篇,B-G於課堂上才分發﹞
Nutrasweet (A-G). Harvard Business School Case #9-794-079,…,085 (B-G given out in class).
1.對Nutrasweet公司針對荷蘭糖業公司進入歐洲和加拿大代糖﹝阿斯巴甜﹞市場這件事的反應,Winfried Vermijs 應該抱持何種期望?
1. How should Winfried Vermijs expect Nutrasweet to respond to the Holland Sweetener Company's entry into the European and Canadian aspartame markets?

2. 精確地說,Vermijs應該如何評估他已預期到的兩種可能情況﹝價格戰和正常競爭﹞發生的相對可能性?
2. Specifically, how should Vermijs assess the relative likelihood of the two scenarios - price war and normal competition - he has in mind?
10 Flightsafety (A-B).
哈佛商學院
個案編號•9-799-113, 114 ﹝共兩篇,B篇於課堂上才分發﹞
Flightsafety (A-B). Harvard Business School Case #9-799-113, 114 (B given out in class).
1. 「航空訓練」這個產業有多少吸引力?為什麼?
1. How attractive is the aviation training industry? Why?

2. 為什麼FlightSafety公司曾在這個產業取得成功?A.L. Ueltschi此人對這個成功又有什麼貢獻?
2. Why had FlightSafety been successful historically in this industry? What was the contribution of Al Ueltschi to this success?

3.在這個產業中,有什麼會改變Flightsafety 公司前景的重要轉變正在進行中?
3. What significant changes are occurring in this industry that will affect FlightSafety's future prospects?

4. 你對FlightSafety公司的管理階層有什麼建議?
4. What recommendations do you have for FlightSafety management?
11 沃爾瑪百貨公司
哈佛商學院
個案編號•9-794-024.
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Harvard Business School Case #9-794-024.
1. 在低價零售產業中,長期以來為沃爾瑪公司帶來競爭優勢的關鍵資源有哪些?
1. What, historically, have been Wal-Mart's key sources of competitive advantage in discount retailing?

2. 沃爾瑪在低價零售業中的競爭優勢在1994年時的持續性如何?
2. How sustainable is Wal-Mart's competitive advantage in discount retailing in 1994?

3. 你認為沃爾瑪的跨國經營和超市化等擴張化經營方式如何?
3. What do you think of Wal-Mart's international and supercenter expansion?
12 期中考試
Mid-term Exam.
13 Marks and Spencer.
哈佛商學院
個案編號•9-391-089, 090. ﹝共兩篇﹞
Marks and Spencer. Harvard Business School Case #9-391-089, 090.
閱讀A個案的1-8頁,以瞭解Marks & Spencer 公司的歷史,以及它在英國這麼成功的原因。
仔細研究這家公司為跨國擴張經營所下的功夫,內容從A個案的第9頁一直延續到B個案。
Read pages 1-8 of the (A) case to understand the Marks & Spencer history and why it became so successful in the U.K.

Carefully study the firm's international expansion efforts, starting on page 9 of the (A) case and continuing in the (B) case.

1. 為什麼Marks & Spencer在英國零售業中這麼地成功?
1. Why has Marks & Spencer been so successful in the U.K. retailing?

2. 為什麼這家公司在海外曾遭遇過這麼多問題?
2. Why has the firm had so much trouble overseas?

3. 併購Brooks Brothers公司和Kings Supermarkets 公司,對解決上述問題有何幫助?
3. How will Brooks Brothers and Kings Supermarkets help them address these problems?

4. 若將眼光放在前方Marks & Spencer公司應該優先處理哪些事?
4. Looking ahead, what should be the firm's priorities?


IV. 挑戰競爭優勢
IV. Challenging Competitive Advantage

課程單元/讀物 作業
14 Collis and Montgomery合著 :《企業策略》一書中的第二章〈資源和租金〉
Collis and Montgomery. "Resources and Rents."

(譯註:Collis和Montogmery兩位也是倡導「資源基礎說」的知名學者,《企業策略》一書為兩人主要著作,由麥格羅希爾公司出版: 網址
15 ﹝美國﹞西南航空公司 (A)
哈佛商學院
個案編號•575060
Southwest Airlines (A). Harvard Busines School Case #575060.
1. 使用圖表﹝exhibits 8、9﹞來分析不同定價下的獲利結果 條件如下: VC/passenger=$2.80 VC/flight=$244, 針對第四季做推測

FC/flight = 1842K + 204K - 2.80 * # passengers = $717 # flights
1. Use exhibits 8 and 9 to analyze the profitability implications of different prices. You have VC/passenger=$2.80, VC/flight=$244, and estimate for Q4.

FC/flight = 1842K + 204K - 2.80 * # passengers = $717
# flights

2. 根據上述結果, 在1973年2月 1日,Muse該怎麼做?
2. Based on this, what should Muse do 2/1/73?
16 Head Ski.
哈佛商學院
個案編號•313120
Head Ski. Harvard Business School Case 313120.
1. 為什麼他們成功了?
1. Why have they been successful?

2. 有哪些潛在的問題?
2. What are the potential problems?

3. 他們該怎麼做?
3. What should they do?
17 抱怨信
Complaint Letters.
(譯註:本堂課旨在闡述客訴管理之價值。)
18 Jan Carlzon: CEO at SAS (A)
哈佛商學院
個案編號•392149
SAS (A). Harvard Business School Case #593-001-1.
(譯註:原文編號錯,且和SAS公司有關之個案不少,此處選出本人認為吻合右列題目描述者。)
1. Carlzon是個好管理者嗎?
1. Is Carlzon a good manager?

2. 那些卡通有何作用?
2. Why the cartoons?

3. 分權化管理好嗎?
3. Is decentralization good?
19 福斯廣播公司(Fox)
哈佛商學院
個案編號•9-387-096.
Fox. Harvard Business School Case #9-387-096.
1. 1986年是在美國計畫推出第四家全國連播電視網的好時機嗎?
1. Is 1986 a good time to attempt to launch a fourth television network in the United States?

2. 福斯公司採取什麼方法創造並獲取不同於既存的三家電視網所擁有的價值呢?
2. How does Fox's approach to the creation and capture of value differ from that of the three existing networks?

3. 依你推測,這三家電視網會如何因應福斯的入侵?
3. What do you expect the three existing networks will do in response to Fox's entry?
20 E-trade.
史丹佛 個案編號M-286.
E-trade. Stanford Case #M-286.
(譯註:本個案亦可在哈佛商學院網站購得,編號M286。)
1.傳統證券商和電子證券商在經營成本上有何差異?
1. What is the cost difference between traditional and electronic discount brokers?

2.書籍零售業也會有類似的成本差異,這兩種不同產業都有成本差異,但其間又有何異同之處?
2. How does this compare with the difference for bookstores?


3. 你會對e-trade公司做什麼建議?
3. What recommendations would you make to e-trade?


V. 創造企業優勢
V. Creating Corporate Advantage

課程單元/讀物 作業
21 Collis and Montgomery合著 :<創造企業優勢> ﹝Creating Corporate Advantage﹞《哈佛商業評論》﹝Harvard Business Review﹞ 文章編號•98303
*編按:本文收錄於《哈佛商業評論》1998年5/6月號。內容仍為以資源基礎說解釋案例為主軸。簡介請參照址:Harvard Business Review. #98303
22 好市多公司
哈佛商學院
個案編號•9-599-041.
Costco Companies. Harvard Business School Case #9-599-041.
1. 為什麼人們會選擇在好市多量販店消費?
1. Why do people shop at Costco?

2. 好市多公司的盈利模式為何?
2. How does Costco make money?

3. 你要如何行銷這些新的服務?
3. How would you market the new services?

4. 用好市多公司的方式來銷售這些服務,會是個好主意嗎?
4. Is the selling of services in this way a good idea?
23 Newell.
哈佛商學院
個案編號•9-799-139.
Newell. Harvard Business School Case #9-799-139.
1. Newell公司是否有一個成功的「整體企業層級策略」?針對它旗下所有的事業體,Newell公司是否具有加值的作用?如果有,它是怎麼做的?
1. Does Newell have a successful corporate-level strategy? Does the company add value to the businesses within its portfolio? If so, how?
(譯註:依涵蓋面泛圍之大小,策略可概分為三種層級,由上而下依序為─
Cooperate-level 整體企業層級,以整個企業集團之利益為考量
Business-level 事業部層級,以一整個大類的產品或服務營運產生之總損益為考量
Function-level 功能部門層級,以各部門績效單獨考量)
2. Newell公司擁有哪些顯見的特殊資源?
2. What are the company's distinctive resources?

3. 它併購Calphalon公司,這是個明智之舉嗎?
3. Does the acquisition of Calphalon make sense?

4. 併購Rubbermaid公司,對Newell來說是有益處的行為嗎?
4. Was the Rubbermaid acquisition a good move for Newell?
24 最後一堂教授講課
Final Lecture.
25 期末考試 / 繳交期末報告
Final Exam/Paper Due.



 
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