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審定:無
翻譯:馬景文(簡介並寄信)
(譯註:輔助教室
編輯所設置自學書院網站設有本課程的輔助教室,內容包括部份閱讀文章的翻譯本,中文文獻連結,和自學者論壇。)
編輯:劉夏泱(簡介並寄信)

案例簡報和討論

學生必須就自選的國家或其以下層次的環保運動、動員或參與,上台報告十五分鐘,並且帶領20-30分鐘的討論。目標是探討案例如何關連和展現課程的主要主題與閱讀資料。選擇一份閱讀資料(最好是案例研究),在報告前一個星期提出以利討論進行。要事先準備三、四個問題帶動討論。以下作品由署名學生授權使用。

第四周:中國的跨國公民社會參與:雲南省怒江案例研究 (Erik Nielsen)

建造和操作大壩與移民規劃和環境影響評估活動重叠,亦與重大社會和文化影響相關。在中國,對建造大壩最新且最具爭議性的其中一個案例,是雲南僻遠地區的怒江。怒江工程中有多個利益團體,對於如何管理大河有著相當分歧的利益。此案例將檢視:怒江的水電大壩以及工程涉及日趨複雜的利益相關者;隨著較多組織或「公眾」參與決策過程,分析中國的決策過程如何演變;為何無法有效採行此種政策決策過程,以致於政府決策可以維持並最後執行。

Litzinger, Ralph. 〈保護怒江:水電計劃,媒體行動主義和找尋草根階層〉Duke University工作文件.

Yardley, Jim. 〈大壩工程威脅即將逝去的伊甸園,中國總理下令停工〉《紐約時報》2004年4月9日

《東南亞河流網絡》Chainarong Sretthachau先生於2003年12月16日致函中國駐泰國大使,函件標題為〈為83個泰國和緬甸的組織向中國申訴上怒江大壩〉
(譯註:「怒江大壩」中文資料參見http://www.self-learning-college.org/forum/viewtopic.php?p=1063#1063)

瀏覽以下英語網站:

東南亞河流網絡

河流監察(東亞和東南亞)

國際河流網絡

美國樂施會:東亞頁

綠色和平:亞洲紙業公司在雲南非法伐木

中國與亞太區:為永續生計的林業市場和林業

第六周:生態貸款社: 三頭解決辦法? (David Fogelson)

生態貸款社案例討論問題 (自學書院中譯本)
(英文PDF)、 (繁體PDF)、 (簡體PDF)
(英文DOC)、 (繁體DOC)、 (簡體DOC)

生態貸款社是一個非營利的中小企業金融組織,主要資助拉丁美洲的「公平交易」認證咖啡種植者,希望透過永續經營的發展方式可以保護生態敏感的地區。本案例探討不同問題,看看這方法在那裡是否行得通,以及對於未來的環保議題使用私營/公營/非營利模式的提出警語及其機會。

咖啡豐收,及時取得貿易信貸(自學書院中譯本) (PDF)

向美國銷售草莓,阿瑪遜農民得到保障

生態貸款社網站

第七周:中東的公民社會和環保管治(Nancy Odeh)

本案例檢視伊朗一個環保非政府組織的源起和活動,這組織就是永續發展中心Centre for Sustainable Development (CENESTA)。CENESTA是世界保育聯盟World Conservation Union的一員,附屬於伊朗北方大學。與CENESTA合作的對象包括伊朗農村地區的當地社群、國家政府和政府間各組織。CENESTA最近的方案包括促進生物多樣性的永續以及伊朗游牧生活形態的延續。

永續發展中心

遷徙原住民世界聯盟

公民創業系列(CENESTA撰寫第五冊〈西亞地區〉一章)(PDF - 3.6 MB)

第八周:格蘭德河共享水源爭執:南北相遇(Randall Coffie)

站在前線的國際非政府組織有效調停解決跨國界水源爭執。

格蘭德河Río Grande/Río Bravo是北美洲最重要的河流盆地,是穿越Chihuahuan乾燥沙漠的生命線。美國和墨西哥在1944年簽訂條約管理兩國的分配,當時人口只是現在的一小部分,而大規模灌溉農業剛剛開始。六十年後,此盆地跨國界部份的人口有一千萬,而且還在增長;但是灌溉農業用水就已經佔地表水的80-90%。過去這幾年,此系統已顯得脆弱不堪,北墨西哥持續嚴重乾旱,加上兩國水源管理框架的不恰當,導致兩國針對1944年條約中所規定墨西哥的供水責任起了嚴重爭端。灌溉農業佔用大部份水源,又是成千上萬盆地居民的生計,於是成為爭端的核心。本案例研究集中於國際和國內組織在此爭端所起的作用,例如國際邊界河流水資源委員會International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) ,格蘭德盆地聯盟Rio Grande Rio Bravo Basin Coalition (RGRBBC) ,以及Texas Austin,Nuevo Leon和TEC de Monterrey等大學。.

Mizrahi, Yemile. 〈墨西哥和美國為共享水源爭執〉《聯邦》第5期(2002): 5-6.

策略及國際研究中心〈美國—墨西哥之跨國界水源管理—格蘭德河案例〉2003年(自學書院中譯本)(PDF - 1.5 MB)

美國德州大自然資源保育委員會〈美國德州—墨西哥Nuevo Leon省策略環保規劃:合作架構〉1997年

Bloom, Greg〈格蘭德盆地聯盟:獻身大河的多國組織〉(自學書院中譯本)

Herzog, Lawrence A. 〈南北相遇:美國—墨西哥邊界之城市,空間和政治〉Austin: 德州大學墨美研究中心,1990年

第九周:「自然之友」的發展和改革:中國第一個民間環保組織之案例研究(一名學員)

「自然之友」的發展和改革(PDF)

「自然之友」於1994年成立,是中國第一個,也是最大規模的民間環保組織。過去十年中,尤其是在最近四年,「自然之友」發展迅速,現有二千名個人會員和近一百名附屬協會會員。「自然之友」主要是推行環保教育,包括植樹、觀鳥和農村教師培訓。「自然之友」是非營利組織,資金來自會費,國內民眾支持和國際的基金會撥款。「自然之友」現在面臨內部改革的挑戰,涉及管理結構、項目手法以及與國家和當地政府關係的策略。「自然之友」邁向第二個十年之際將在兩方面擴大其項目和功能:從喚起大家對環保的重視走向普遍參與環保教育、加強與政府的互動以及強化在政府決策過程中所扮演的角色。

Lee, Klaudia. 〈自然之友致力提高綠色議題的覺悟〉《南華早報》2005年3月11日

Wang, Peter. 〈自然之友會員調查和分析〉2004年

Lappin, Todd. 〈綠和紅是否可以混合?〉《國家報》1994年2月14日

中國文化書院,綠色文化分院「自然之友」簡體網站Friends of Nature

第十周:U'wa與西方石油公司:哥倫比亞公民社會反對石油開發(Emily Greenspan)

U'wa原住民族群約五千人,居住在哥倫比亞東北的偏遠森林。U'wa族本著他們對大自然資源的傳統信念,極為反對在他們祖傳的土地上開採石油。1995年當哥倫比亞政府批准以美國為主的西方石油公司在Siriri地域(其中部份是U'wa族的土地)開探時,U'wa族立即展開遊說,企圖終止工程。本案例探討不同利益相關者對開發工程反應的互動,此等利益相關者包括U'wa族、哥倫比亞政府、西方石油公司、國際非政府組織、以及滲透當地的游擊隊;尤其特別注意國際和國內公民社會採取的策略和技巧,以及在彼此利益極為分歧的背景下達成解決紛爭的挑戰。

Macdonald, Theodore, S. James Anaya與Yadira Soto. 〈Samoré案例:觀察和建議〉美洲國家組織/哈佛大學哥倫比亞項目

《地球島期刊》〈戈爾及石油大滅族〉15卷2期(2000). Academic Search Premier.

Jeffrey, Paul. 〈U'wa族與西方石油公司〉《國家天主教報》36卷39期 (2000). Academic Search.

Soltani, Atossa與Kevin Koenig. 〈U'wa族戰勝西方石油公司〉《多國監視》25期 (2004).

瀏覽英語網站: 阿瑪遜觀察

第十一周:城市生態合作團體的發展和活動(Lindsay Campbell)

本案例探討「城市生態合作團體」這個非營利、公眾參與的小型網絡,其成員分佈在波士頓、紐哈芬、紐約、匹茲堡、華盛頓和巴爾的摩等城市。我們探討此團體的歷史,重點放在團體創辦人之間的個人和專業關係,然後考慮團體取得的資金來源和所採用的交流策略。把這個有資格限制、分佈多個城市的合作團體和其他常見的以某地為基礎或較廣泛的合作組織比較,考慮兩者的優劣。討論的後半部份檢視城市生態合作團體一項特別成果〈城市生態合作評估〉,此項有組織的調查,可幫助我們理解每一城市管理網絡的廣泛能力、模式與不足。

William R. Burch博士簡歷

人類生態體系模型(自學書院中譯本)

巴爾的摩市長期生態體系研究網站

城市資源方案網站

城市生態學院網站

公園和人民網站

匹茲堡市九里地網站

華盛頓市Casey樹木捐贈基金會網站



Case Presentation and Discussion

Students are required to give a 15 minute presentation on environmental movements, mobilization, or participation within a self-selected national or sub-national context. Students will then lead a 20-30 minute discussion of the case. The goal of the discussion is to examine how the case relates to and illustrates key course themes and readings. One reading (preferably a case study) should be selected and given out one week in advance to facilitate discussion. Three or four questions should also be prepared in advance that will guide the discussion. All work is courtesy of the student named and used with permission.

Week 4: Transnational Civil Society Engagement in China: A Case Study of the Nu River in Yunnan Province (Erik Nielsen)

Significant social and cultural impacts are associated with dam construction and operation that overlap the resettlement planning and environment impact assessment activities. In China, one of the most recent and contentious cases of dam building is on the Nu River, located in a remote part of Yunnan Province. In the case of the Nu River project, there are multiple stakeholder groups with substantially different interests over how the river should be managed. This case will examine: hydropower dam development on the Nu River and the growing diversity of stakeholders involved with the project; an analysis of how the Chinese policy-making process evolved as greater constituents or 'publics' became engaged in the decision-making process; and how this policy-making process failed to effectively adapt so government decisions could be sustained and ultimately implemented.

Litzinger, Ralph. "Protecting the Mighty Nu: Hydroelectric Schemes, Media Activism, and the Search for the Grassroots." Duke University, working paper.

Yardley, Jim. "China's Premier Orders Halt to a Dam Project Threatening a Lost Eden." New York Times, April 9, 2004.

Letter written by Mr. Chainarong Sretthachau (Southeast Asia Rivers Network) on December 16, 2003 to China's Ambassador to Thailand entitled "Petition to China for 83 Organizations from Thailand/Myanmar on Upper Salween Dam."

Review the following Web sites:

Southeast Asia Rivers Network

Rivers Watch East and Southeast Asia

International Rivers Network

Oxfam America: East Asia

Greenpeace: APP Illegal Logging in Yunnan

China and the Asia-Pacific: Forest Markets for Sustainable Livelihoods and Forests

Week 6: EcoLogic Finance: A Trisector Solution? (David Fogelson)

EcoLogic Finance Case Discussion Questions
(英文PDF)、 (繁體PDF)、 (簡體PDF)
(英文DOC)、 (繁體DOC)、 (簡體DOC)

Ecologic Finance is a nonprofit small/medium enterprise finance organization funding mostly FairTrade certified coffee growers in Latin America in the hopes that by sustainably developing, they are protecting ecologically sensitive areas. The case explores a variety of questions to find out where this approach works, the caveats, and the opportunity to use a private/public/non-profit model for future environmental issues.

Reaping Coffee Harvests with Timely Access to Trade Credit (PDF)

Berry Sales to U.S. Offer Security to Amazon Farmers

Ecologic Finance

Week 7: Civil Society and Environmental Governance in the Middle East (Nancy Odeh)

This case study examines the origins and activities of one environmental NGO's in Iran, the Centre for Sustainable Development (CENESTA). CENESTA is a member of the World Conservation Union and is affiliated with the University of the North (Iran). CENESTA works with a range of actors from local communities in rural areas in Iran to national governments and inter-governmental entities. One of CENESTA's most recent initiatives included facilitating the sustainability of biodiversity and livelihoods in nomadic pastoralism in Iran.

CENESTA

World Alliance of Mobile Indigenous Peoples (WAMIP)

Civic Entrepreneurship Series (CENESTA wrote the regional West Asia chapter in Volume V) (PDF - 3.6 MB)

Week 8: Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Shared Water Dispute: Where North Meets South (Randall Coffie)

An international NGO’s Front (INF) as an effective mediator (facilitator) in the solution of transboundary water disputes.

Forming a lifeline through the arid Chihuahuan desert, the Río Grande/Río Bravo is one of North America's most important river basins. A treaty signed in 1944, when population was a fraction of what it is today, and when large-scale irrigated agriculture was just coming into its own, governs its allocation between the U.S. and Mexico. Sixty years later, the transboundary portion of the basin is now home to over 10 million people and growing, but irrigated agriculture still accounts for 80 to 90% of surface water diversions. The vulnerabilities of this system have been on display for the last several years, as a deep and persistent drought in northern Mexico, combined with an inadequate binational water management framework, led to a serious binational dispute over Mexico's water delivery obligations under the 1944 Treaty. Because it accounts for so much water use and because it provides a livelihood for tens of thousands of basin residents, irrigated agriculture has been at the center of this dispute. This case study focuses on the roles that were played in the dispute by international and national organizations such as the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) and the Rio Grande Rio Bravo Basin Coalition (RGRBBC) and Universities including Texas Austin, Nuevo Leon and TEC de Monterrey.

Mizrahi, Yemile. "Mexico and the USA Quarrel over Shared Waters." Federations 5 (2002): 5-6.

Center for Strategic and International Studies. US-Mexico Transboundary Water Management: The Case of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2003. (PDF - 1.5 MB)

Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. "Texas-Nuevo Leon, Strategic Environmental Plan: A Framework for Cooperation." 1997.

Bloom, Greg. "The Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin Coalition: A Multinational Organization Dedicated to the River." 2001.

Herzog, Lawrence A. Where North Meets South: Cities, Space and Politics on the USA-Mexico Border. Austin: Center for Mexican American Studies, University of Texas, 1990.

Week 9: Development and Reform of the Friends of Nature: A Case Study of the First Environmental NGO in China (Student 1)

The Evolution and Reform of the Friends of Nature (PDF)

The Friends of Nature (FON) was founded in 1994. It is the first and largest environmental NGO in China. During the past decade, especially the last four years, the FON developed very quickly. It has more than 2,000 individual members and around 100 affiliate association members. The main program of FON is environmental education, which includes tree planting, bird watching, and rural teacher training. FON is a non-profit organization, funding itself by membership fees, domestic public support and international foundation grants. FON now faces challenges of internal reform with respect to its management structure, program tactics and strategy in the relationship with state and local governments. Shifting from its first decade to the second, FON is going to expand its programs and functions into two main directions: to shift from public awareness to public participation for environmental education and strengthen its interaction with government and its role in governmental decision making processes.

Lee, Klaudia. "Friends of Nature Fights to Raise Awareness of Green Issues." South China Morning Post, March 11, 2005.

Wang, Peter. Friends of Nature's Membership Survey and Analysis. 2004.

Lappin, Todd. "Can Green Mix with Red?" The Nation, Feb 14, 1994.

Review the following website: Friends of Nature

Week 10: U'wa vs. Oxy: Civil Society Resistance to Oil Development in Colombia (Emily Greenspan)

The U'wa indigenous group includes approximately 5,000 members and inhabits remote forest territory in Northeast Colombia. The U'wa strongly oppose oil exploitation on their ancestral lands based on deeply held traditional beliefs regarding natural resources. When, in 1995, the Colombian government granted the U.S. based Occidental Petroleum (Oxy) an exploration permit for the Siriri block - a portion of which overlaps with U'wa territory - the U'wa immediately launched advocacy efforts to terminate the project. This case examines the interactions between various stakeholders in response to the development project, including the U'wa, Colombian government, Oxy, international nongovernmental organizations, and guerilla groups that pervade the area. Particular attention is given to strategies and tactics adopted by civil society both nationally and internationally, and the challenge of achieving conflict resolution in the context of extremely diverse interests.

Macdonald, Theodore, S. James Anaya, and Yadira Soto. "The Samoré Case: Observations and Recommendations." Organization of American States/Harvard University Project on Colombia.

Earth Island Journal, "Al Gore and Big Oil Genocide," 15, no. 2 (2000). Academic Search Premier.

Jeffrey, Paul. "U'wa vs. 'Oxy.'" National Catholic Reporter 36, no. 39 (2000). Academic Search.

Soltani, Atossa and Kevin Koenig. "U'wa Overcome Oxy." Multinational Monitor 25 (2004).

Review the following website: Amazon Watch

Week 11: Development and Activities of the Urban Ecology Collaborative (Lindsay Campbell)

This case examines a small network of nonprofit and public partners in Boston, New Haven, New York, Pittsburgh, Washington, DC, and Baltimore called the Urban Ecology Collaborative. We will examine the history of this group, focusing first on the personal and professional relationships of the founders that led to the creation of the UEC, and then consider funding sources that the group has accessed and communication strategies it has used. This selective, multi-city cooperative effort will be compared with other common collaborative structures that are more place-based or more broadly inclusive, considering the advantages and disadvantages of each. The second half of the discussion will examine the results of one specific project of the UEC - the Urban Ecology Collaborative Assessment - an organizational survey that was used to understand the broad capacities, patterns, and gaps of the stewardship networks in each city.

Biography of Dr. William R. Burch

Human Ecosystem Model

Baltimore Long Term Ecosystem Research Web site

Urban Resources Initiative Web site

Urban Ecology Institute Web site

Parks and People Web site

Nine Mile Run Web site

Casey Trees Endowment Fund Web site