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本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:胡寬如(簡介並寄信)
編輯:賴恆黎(簡介並寄信)


介紹

寫作是思考的一個重要工具。身為這個課程的學生,你撰寫及改寫一些文章,從中認識並發揮自己既有的專長。課堂作業(和寫作)的成功,所需的技巧包括:批判性的閱讀,參與課堂討論,構思並拓展有趣的想法,有條理地組織資料,著重於有見地的論點陳述,編寫清楚連貫的文句章節,以事實佐證,合理的結論,遵循文法及用字規則,有建樹地評論他人的作品,校對文章,還有發揮你自己作家的特質和文風。(呼!)

在本課程中,你會閱讀一系列的自傳並以寫作對之回應。這些文章寓意深遠又複雜,必須反覆閱讀才能投入其中。一系列的課堂作業,著重在以寫作來回應他人的作品,並持續地對應交流。對我而言,教育的原動力,就是學員主動地參與這種交流。(拉丁文中的教育 e-ducate,是啟蒙,想想看你所學的能為你帶來什麼樣的心智啟蒙,以及你想要的收穫又是什麼)。思考和明白表達意見的能力,不僅對大學教育是最基本的,對再深造和專業工作,乃至群體生活亦然。

課程

我要求你們將這門課程當成是一種啟蒙,你可以當它是排練課,就好像那些視覺藝術和表演藝術課一樣。藉由探討特定的課題,你將可練習思考和表達的技巧。而我的角色是在課程和討論中試著帶出你的想法,追蹤你的進度,做出評論以引導你到有益的方向,舉辦預訂的或是臨時決定的討論會,並在學期裡不定時地檢查你的作業。而你的角色是盡你所能地去思考,表達,和寫作。請多發問。

這堂課是練習寫作的時間。每週至少需要寫一份草稿或做一份修改。我希望每一份修正都是正如定義上的"Re-vision(回顧)"。回顧你的想法,回顧讀物中表達的意念,以及回顧兩者間的關連。一份修正稿所花的時間和腦力,可能和起撰草稿不相上下,甚或更鉅。為了達到這種進度,你必須養成作家的習慣和自律。你需要固定又不受干擾的時間和地點,來從事寫作。也許需要柔和的音樂,或有個喜愛的小玩意在手邊。

寫作需要專心投入,尤其某種心境下對寫作更有助益:「心情流暢專注」,就像是運動或冥想後的那種平靜流暢心情,或是在一天或一周中的某些時刻,這要看你自己的生活節奏而定。作家必須長時間專注的工作,定下你自己的目標和進度吧!我建議一周最少花四到六個小時專心寫作,並分成兩個不受干擾的時段。這還不包括在寫作前的閱讀,腦力激盪,培育意念,或是其他對你有幫助的種種活動。與人討論也有幫助,你可以找一個讀書伙伴。

寫作的必要過程是修改,而不是寫在初稿裡的第一個念頭。作家不斷回歸到作品本身去看哪些好哪些壞,思考什麼對作家和作品是最好的,然後在腦海裡勾勒出最完美的佈局可能有的結果。這些都需要跳出寫作本身,再次回顧作品,然後修改作品。從閱讀彼此的作品,用批判的眼光閱讀自己的文章,並細細品味我和其他同學所做出的評論,你將學會如何更圓滿地閱讀並修飾自己的作品。

課表和課堂規則

我把一學期裡的十四周,分成三個不同主題的單元。

在課堂討論之前,請將指定的閱讀讀過兩遍第一遍應該會給你一些文章基本架構和作者想闡述的概念。在著手深度閱讀前,先參考我提供導讀的問題和主題。在認真讀第二次時,用筆或鉛筆把覺得關鍵的、困難的、或費解的章節標示出來(如果不想用筆留下記號,可用大量的立可貼或書目卡,把自己的感想寫在上面)。把自己的反應記下來,這會在課堂討論、或在你寫讀後感的時候有所幫助。

每一周學生要交一篇短論,有時還加上一篇修改稿,這兩者都是大專案的某個階段。每一份稿都請準備三份副本,一份給我,兩份給同學。把所有我批閱評語的副本放在一個牢固的檔案夾裡當成是你的寫作文集。在學期的第五週,第十週和最後一週,我會回顧這部文集來評估你進步的進度。學生的個人表現和進步狀況,還有課堂上的貢獻,都會反映在個人的最後成績上。對課程的投入,作業表現和改寫的過程,還有屬於你自己精彩的文章,亦都包含在內。

每一周我會批閱你的文章。每一份作業都要準時交。週週內容環環相扣,一旦落後很難追上。學生交上的草稿會得到一個加號或是減號的記號(如果遲交就是零)。改寫才有分數。如果你不交功課,你就無法獲得大家和我對你的作品所做的評論與回應。不能跳過草稿這一步,而直接拿一個版本來,因為寫作本身就是不斷修改重寫。我將會給你的草稿一個記號,而不是分數,但如果修正稿沒準時交就是F,不及格。所以一定要寫草稿。

請將我批閱的評語,以及你寫的文字,從頭開始仔細對照閱讀。如果有不了解的地方,請問我。如果與我的建議背道而馳,或是沒能融匯貫通我的文批意見的話,那份修正稿就是失敗的。我最後的評語著重在你作品的優缺點上。詳讀我寫在紙邊空白處的那些評語,以瞭解你的最後總評是怎麼來的。如果不同意我給你的評估,請跟我討論,分數方面也是。

出勤和課堂參與

在大型工作會議中,我會從每一名學生作品裡重製至少一份不具名的文章,用相當多的時間來討論這些作品。藉此拓展學生的閱讀和修改的技巧,所以你們一定要參加。積極參與討論和課堂上的習作都需要學生準時出席。即便你們缺少睡眠或尚未完成作業,都要來上課。如有特殊狀況,請告知。我所求不多,除非病到有醫生證明,我都希望學生出席。真的病到不能來上課,請在上課前通知我。遲到對成績不好。如果缺席,更是沒參與。缺席超過五次以上,這門課就算不及格。不論下一堂課要交什麼作業,都是你個人的責任。

寫作小組

學生將被分為三人一組。絕少作家是獨自工作的。我們需要同事聆聽想法,閱讀草稿,協助修改及編輯。每週你們將負責評論某人的作品。我們會設計一個格式讓學生遵循。在將評論提交給我和稍後交給該作者之前,請在你的評論上簽上大名。

會議

這門課包括兩個研討會。

抄襲

無論是否經過改寫,或是原字不動的複製,這種使用某人的想法和文字而不註明出處的行為就是抄襲。處分輕則不及格,重則退學。抄襲不但剝奪了你自我思考的能力,也剝削了原作的心血。避免抄襲。詳情請見MIT線上寫作中心。有關如何註明出處,MIT的學生也可線上參考《Mayfield科技寫作手冊》(The Mayfield Handbook of Technical & Scientific Writing)

分數

短論:70%
同儕回應和課堂參與:20%
課堂習作:10%

請注意:課堂表現共佔成績的30%)
作業沒有常見或重大的技術性缺失(如文法,拼字,標點符號等)的話,評分為C。有清楚邏輯,有力的論點支持,組織架構良好,雖略有輕微技術性的瑕疵,可得B。有原創性的思想,卓越的文體架構,極少技術缺失的文章可得A。更多細節,隨後再述。


重要公告

在21W.730課程裡拿到B-或B-以上的分數,代表你可自動通過作文能力需求的第一階段。如果成績是C,導師可依個案決定是否讓你通過第一階段。成績是D或F就表示第一階段不及格。





Introduction

Writing is a crucial means of thinking. As a student in this course, you will write and re-write papers to identify and build upon your existing strengths. Skills required for successful classwork (and writing) include reading critically, contributing to discussion, formulating and exploring interesting ideas, organizing information logically, focusing valid thesis statements, composing clear and coherent sentences and paragraphs, supporting claims with specific evidence, reaching reasonable conclusions, following conventions of grammar and usage, commenting usefully on others' work, proofreading, and developing your identity and voice as a writer. (Whew!)

In this course, you will read a series of autobiographical texts and write in response to them. These texts are rich and complicated; real engagement requires reading them several times. The series of assignments foregrounds the way in which writing occurs in response to writings of others, continuing a dialogue. Your active participation in this dialogue seems to me the basic dynamic of education (from Latin, e-ducare, to lead out -- think about what you want your education to lead out of you, and what you want it to lead to). Thinking and expressing ideas clearly is fundamental not only to undergraduate education but also to graduate and professional work, as well as social life.

The Course

I ask you to think of our course as having the "leading out" dynamic of education. You might think of it as a studio course, like one in visual or performing arts. You will practice the art of thinking and expression by working on specific projects. My role is to try to draw out your ideas by leading class and discussion, monitoring your progress, making comments to guide you in useful directions, holding scheduled and drop-in conferences, and looking at your gathered work at various points in the semester. Your role is to think, speak, and write as well as you can. Please ask questions.

The course is a time to practice writing. You can expect to write at least one draft or revision each week. I expect a revision to be exactly that: a re-vision, re-seeing of your ideas, the ideas in the reading, and the ways in which the two relate. A revision may take as much time and thought as a draft, and perhaps more. For this pace, you need to develop the habits and discipline of a writer. You need a regular time and place to write when you are free from distractions. You may want calming music or favorite props.

The discipline of writing requires focus. Certain states of mind are more conducive to good writing than others: "flow," the calm after exercise or meditation, and certain times of the day and week, depending on your own rhythms. Writers need to work with concentration for long periods of time. Set your own goals and pace for this; I suggest at least 4-6 good hours a week for writing, in two uninterrupted sessions. This comes in addition to the pre-writing activities of reading, brain-storming, incubating, and whatever else works for you. Talking over ideas also helps; you may look for a buddy.

The essential process of writing is revision, not writing first thoughts in first drafts. Writers learn by returning to their work to see what it does and doesn't do, thinking about what is best in it and in them, and imagining where the best thoughts might lead. This requires stepping outside writing, re-seeing it, and changing it. Through reading each others' papers, reading your own critically, and paying attention to my and each others' comments, you will learn to read and revise your work more successfully.

Schedule and Routines

I have divided the fourteen weeks of the semester into three units, each with a particular focus.

Read each assigned reading twice before we discuss it in class. The first reading should give you a general idea of what the essay is about and what the writer is doing. Then consult the questions and topics I provide before you really tackle the essay. Read closely the second time with a pen or pencil in hand to mark sections that seem crucial, difficult, or puzzling to you. (If you cannot commit even to pencil markings, use plenty of Post-Its or index cards as places to mark your reactions.) Recording your responses will help you when we discuss the essays and when you write about them.

Each week you will write one essay and/or revision, both as stages in a larger project. Please make three copies of everything you write, one for me and two for peers. Keep my marked copy of everything you write in a sturdy folder, as your portfolio. In order to evaluate your progress, I plan to review your portfolios three times-around the fifth, tenth, and last weeks of the term. Your final grade reflects your individual grades and progress, as well as your participation in class. Evidence of engagement with the course, the assignments, and the process of revision will count, as will your successful work on your writing.

I will read and comment upon your essays each week. Each assignment must be completed on time. Each week's work leads to the next, so you cannot afford to fall behind. The drafts that you submit will receive a +, or - (or a 0, if not submitted on time). Revisions will receive grades. If you do not hand in a draft, you deprive yourself of feedback from the class and from me on your ideas; you may not "skip" the draft, handing in only one version; the process of writing includes revision. You will receive a mark, not a grade, on the first draft you hand in, and an "F" if the revision is not in on time. So write drafts.

Please read my comments from the beginning, along with what you have written. If you do not understand something, ask me. A revision that heads in a completely different direction from what I suggest, or that fails to incorporate my proofreading marks, suffers. My final comments remark on the major strengths and weaknesses of your paper. You should read the marginal comments to see how they contribute to the final one. If you disagree with my evaluation, please discuss it with me. Ditto, the grade.

Attendance and Participation

I will reproduce at least one paper by each of you (names removed) for a large group workshop, and we will spend lots of time discussing your essays. This develops critical reading and revising skills, and you must participate. Active discussion and in-class writing require your punctual presence in class, so come to class even if you are sleep-deprived or have not completed an assignment. Alert me to your state. I will not expect as much from you, but I expect you to attend unless you are certifiably sick. In that case, let me know before class. Arriving late will also hurt your grade. If you are absent, you are not practicing. Over five absences will result in an F for the course. You are responsible for whatever is due in the next class.

Writing Groups

You will divide into groups of about three. Few writers work alone; we rely on colleagues to listen to ideas, read drafts, and help with revision and editing. You will be responsible for commenting on one person's work each week. We will devise a form for you to follow, and you will sign your name on it before handing the comments to me with the paper and then to the writer.

Conferences

Two conferences are required for the class.

Plagiarism

Plagiarism is the unattributed use of someone else's ideas or words, whether paraphrased or duplicated exactly. It results in penalties from "F" grades to expulsion. Plagiarism robs you of finding out what you think; it also robs the author. Avoid it. For details, visit MIT Online Writing Center; MIT students may consult The Mayfield Handbook of Technical & Scientific Writing online about citing sources.

Grades

Essays: 70%
Peer Responses and Class Participation: 20%
In-class Writing: 10%

(N.B.: class participation counts for 30% of your grade.)
I give a "C" for a paper that fulfills the assignment without frequent or major mechanical errors (those in grammar, spelling, or punctuation). "B" papers fulfill the assignment with clear logic, specific support, good organization, and few (if any) mechanical problems. "A" papers exhibit original thought, superior organization suited to the purpose of the writing and rare errors of grammar, spelling, or punctuation. More specifics will follow separately.


Important Note

Receiving a "B-" or better in 21W.730 means that you automatically pass Phase I of the Writing Requirement. If you receive a "C" the instructor will decide, on a case-by-case basis, whether or not you have passed Phase I. Receiving a "D" or an "F" means that you have not passed Phase I.




 
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