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教學大綱


本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:王如欣(簡介並寄信)
編輯:朱學(簡介並寄信)

教學大綱

這門課程的讀與寫將著重在建構自我意識以及生命敘述與較大的社會環境如家庭和朋友、教育、媒體、工作、與社區之間關係的意義。將自己視為代表特定化的道德價值或是屬於特定種族、民族、國家或宗教族群的意義為何?我們在更大的家庭敘事當中,如何想像我們自己?如何將我們的身份認同視為與教育或工作經驗結合並經由它們傳達?如何看待我們自己已被社會中的大眾文化媒體形塑或正被形塑?我們如何思考自己對於較大及較小的人類社區的社會責任?閱讀的內容將涵括馬雅.安格羅、詹姆士.鮑德溫、安德魯杜伯斯、安妮.法蘭克、提姆.歐布箂恩、法萊納瑞.歐康納、喬治.歐威爾、約翰.史坦貝克、譚恩美、托比亞斯.沃夫,以及愛麗絲.華克等作家的小說及非小說作品。

在這學期裡,我們將會探索說故事的技巧以及運用小說工具(例如角色、場景、對話)來打造創造性非小說及非小說敘事的多重方法。我們也會檢視同學可以從自身經驗的資料與二手資源中用以立論的多重方法。

上課要求

課程的要求包括:

  • 經常出席與參與課程
  • 繳交四篇主要的寫作作業以及經常性的短篇寫作練習
  • 在工作站中(書面的或口頭的)對其他人的寫作做出回應
  • 在學期中至少兩次以個別會議的方式與老師面談
  • 期末做出一份口頭報告與閱讀自己的作品

四篇主要的寫作作業(包括第一次與修改過的版本)為三篇短文與一篇短篇小說(或是第四份短文)

服務學習選項

這門課程提供服務學習的選項讓大家可以處理一些我們在課堂中閱讀以及討論過的社區裡的社會及心理議題(例如貧窮、保健的議題、教育不平等或其他方面的議題)。學生們經常發現當專注在主動參與實際社會問題的經驗時,他們可以呈現最佳的寫作。服務學習反應麻省理工學院的宗旨: “本校不只尋求社區中的個體能夠擁有為了增進人類全體福祉而聰慧地、具創造性地、有效率地工作的能力,並且也尋求工作的熱忱。”服務學習並非強制要求,而是建議選項。

服務選項講義
(英文PDF)、 (繁體PDF)、 (簡體PDF)、 (英文DOC)、 (繁體DOC)、 (簡體DOC)

寫作作業

這門課程的基本目標是要培養你們的能力,以期能夠將生命經驗的素材轉譯為具有清楚面向以及中心意旨的生動、具思考、有組織有說服力的短文。至學期末,你們將會寫成二十五頁長已修改過的散文,以及例常性的札記作業。

這門課程對經驗”的定義很廣泛。你們在這們課程中可以針對相當廣泛的不同經驗進行書寫:

  • 你們自己的生命故事
  • 家庭成員、朋友、同事以及師長們的生命敘述或是面談
  • 觀察到的或是目睹過的經驗
  • 從書上讀到或聽說的,或是從電影或電視上看到的經驗

在由經驗進行書寫當中,以更廣大的讀者為書寫動機是很重要的。換句話說,舉例而言,在你們關於萬聖節儀式與祖母對工作的貢獻的寫作當中必須有些事與讀者有關連。讀者的動機可能是對於全球性的人類恐懼、慾望與發展階段的思考,或者是瞭解特定的社會問題或從個人角度切入的議題。

你們將會繳交四份寫作作業,每份作業你們會繳交第一次的版本(並非 “草稿”),以及之後的修改版本。在前三份非小說的創造性短文作業中,你們會有機會寫自傳體或傳記體的敘事。在第一份短文當中,你們會專注在重要的個人身份認同的方面。在第二及第三份短文中,你們會專注在自己選擇的題目中,將個人的經驗敘事與外在研究作連結。外在研究包括了第一與第二手的資料。寫特定的短文時,學生們可能需要利用圖書館做研究、安排訪談、進行田野觀察或服務學習。第四及也就是最後一份作業中,你們可以選擇寫一篇短篇小說或是非小說的創造性短文。這四項作業連同其他在讀者/作者札記裡的練習,都是這門課的中心。每一份寫作都會根基於前一份作業裡你們已經練習過的技巧。每個單元中的閱讀作業與初步寫作練習會為未來的短文及短篇小說寫作做準備。整個學期的課程當中,你們會修改自己所寫作的每一個作品。這整個學期,我們的課程將會專注在被視為是主動塑造過程的寫作以及修改上,以為更廣大的讀者創造出生動、清晰、感人且有意義的作品。

你們也將建立一本打字的包含寫作練習的讀者/作者札記,也必須在期末的時候至少做一次口頭報告以及朗讀你們自己的作品。學期結束時,你們會繳交包含四份寫作作業的第一次及修改版本的期末檔案夾。這份檔案夾連同第四份作業的修改版在最後一堂課繳交。

課程參與與出席

為養成知識社群的氣息,這門課是以研討會的形式作為架構。這整個學期,我們將會討論專業及學生作家的作品。你們來上課時必須準備好對指定的作業提供思考過後的見解以及對其他同學提供有幫助的回應。一種有生命力、持續成長的知識性對話-關於我們的以及已出版的作家作品-就是這門課程的中心。要當一個有效率的研討會成員,你們必須在指定日期前完成閱讀與寫作作業。

寫作工作站

寫作工作站-學生們在裡面可以回應同學們的短文與故事-是這門課程很重要的一個部分。在我們所有四份作業當中,在每份的第一次版本繳交之後會有一次課堂上的寫作工作站。在更短的擬稿前的練習時也會有。我的期待是你們會嚴肅地、帶批評性地回應其他人的作品,並且以具有敏感度、有洞見及想像力的方式來對待每一篇短文及故事。在每一次寫作工作站時你們會被要求閱讀數篇短文及故事,以小組的方式與同學們進行討論,並且以個人書信的形式針對個別作品向作者回應。這堂課的倫理規範是所有學生們的寫作(包括你們的批評)都被當作是最高機密;你們應該將其他同學仍在進行中的作品放在安全的地方並且不在課外討論同學們的作品。這樣的倫理規範可以讓我們培養出一個小型的寫作社群所需的信賴與安全感。

我們的課程的運作方式是一個小型的寫作社群以及屬於你們作品的首度公開,你們應該忠實地來上課。如果有兩次無故缺席,將會影響你們期末的成績。在寫作專案的政策之下,如果你有超過五次的無故缺席,將無法通過這門課程。三次遲到(超過十分鐘)等同一次缺席。如果你因個人或醫療的緊急事故而無法上課,請盡快告知我(或由院長告知我)。盡量將你們的缺席留到學期的後半段。除了緊急事故以外,不要錯過工作站的課程,工作站的缺席等同於兩次缺席。

批改與成績

你們在學期中會寫四份作品,每份都有不同主題。每一份作品會在最初以第一次的版本以及之後的修改版本繳交。在批閱你們的作品時,我會給予評語並且建議未來修改的方向。我也可以與你們面談來討論你們的寫作。只有修改過的版本會給予成績。草稿前的練習會以打勾或簡短評語來確認。在指定日期繳交作業很重要。如果你因個人或醫療的緊急事故而無法上課,請盡快告知我(或由院長告知我)。遲交沒有延長日期的作業會導致較低的期末分數。要通過這門課程,所有作業都必須繳交。你們的期末成績會反映出的,是你們修改過的作品的品質、你們對讀者/作者札記練習的思考成度、你們的口頭報告、你們的出席狀況、對課程的準備與參與、以及你們做為讀者所對同儕做出的貢獻。

寫作目標

在批改你們的寫作時,我會鼓勵你們:

  • 依據生活經驗創造出生動易讀的散文
  • 以優雅的風格對一群聰明公開的聽眾訴說
  • 將小說的工具(場景、角色、對話)應用在創造性非小說當中
  • 以有趣、具原創性、並且一貫的風格來發展你的想法與敘事
  • 以證據來支持你的論點並且適當具創意地使用資源
  • 使用具有文法、標點符號、用字、來源引用規範的語言來清楚地表達自己
  • 使用不同的敘事風格與結構來做實驗
  • 以體貼具娛樂性的風格來為作品定題目

稿件形式

短文與故事都必須打字在白紙的一面上,雙行間距,邊緣四周留約一英吋空間。在第一頁的右上角,打上姓名、課程名稱、日期、作業類型與號碼(如:短文#1,第一次),單行間距。題目必須大寫,置中並放置於上述資訊的雙行間距之下。第一段應該在題目下一行空兩格後開始。每一份短文應該繳交兩份並在封面寫上你認為屬於此作品的優缺點。

短文形式範例
(英文PDF)、 (繁體PDF)、 (簡體PDF)、 (英文DOC)、 (繁體DOC)、 (簡體DOC)

師生會談

在這學期的課程當中,我會以會議的形式與你們碰面討論特定作品或更廣泛的關於改進寫作的策略。我的角色是一個寫作教練,提供回應與建議選擇給做為作者的你們,你們要做的是策劃以及修改你們的作品。會談提供一個很好的機會來延伸研討會裡對於成功寫作策略的對話。你們應該充分準備好到會談裡討論對於特定短文寫作的策略或形式。你們或許會發現在寫作前的腦力激盪與產生想法的時候、第一次與修改版本之間、或是學期中來與我會談討論你們在課程上的進展與後續的目標會很有助益。你們可以在課堂上或以電子郵件與我安排會談的時間。這學期有兩次必要的會談。在學期初我會安排一次與你們的會談,你們也必須安排建立一次在學期後半的會談時間。

學術誠信與原創性

作為一個麻省理工學院的學生、課堂上與更大的作者社群的成員,你們被預期要遵守學術誠信的規範。沒有適當的確認而引述他人的語言或想法有違學術誠信,也構成剽竊。這在麻省理工學院將會導致嚴重的學術上的後果。

在課堂上我們將會討論如何確認資料來源以及如何避免剽竊。關於不同的資料來源引用風格(MLA, APA),參閱Easy Writer, The Mayfield Handbook.

寫作中心/寫作資源

The Writing and Communication Center,也提供學生寫作上的諮詢。你們可以在寫作過程的任何時間點上造訪寫作中心:寫作前、寫草稿時或修改一件作品時。此外,寫作與溝通中心提供準備口頭報告的建議。最好是打電話安排會面時間。

The Program in Writing and Humanistic Studies 網站也為在寫作的學生提供廣泛主題的資訊:其他寫作課程、專案建議、對主副修及其他有興趣學生的要求、作家校內講課或閱讀。每年春天專案計畫都會頒發Ilona Karmel Writing Prize 給學生作者。專案計畫辦公室有更多the Karmel Prize 的資訊。

寫作檔案

請將四份作業(第一次與修改版本)以及我的評語一起保留在一個寫作檔案夾內。與你們的最後一份修改過的作業,與一份你們思考關於自己寫作主題、這學期中你們寫作過程與風格的改變、以及未來計畫的作者的信一同繳交。請注意:你們的寫作檔案需與其他課程的上課材料分開存放(在有袋的或是活頁筆記本)。

出版你們的作品

學生們被強烈建議以出版作為寫作短文與故事的目標。在學期中我們會討論籌畫出版事宜的策略。一些麻省理工學院的出版包括:

  • Counterpoint -麻省理工學與衛斯理學院主要的校園雜誌,每年出版八次。自1991年起,這份雜誌就在兩個校園裡流通-有?,000位綜合的閱讀人口-主題包括社會、政治與文化議題。
  • The Tech -麻省理工學院的報紙。
  • RuneRune -是一份包含麻省理工學生、教師、員工與相關人士的原創性作品的藝術與書信的半年性刊物。
出版的網站將包含收件指導方法。學生們可以在指導教師的辦公室瀏覽《Counterpoint》 以及《Rune》雜誌裡的議題。
Overview

Our reading and writing for this course will focus on what it means to construct a sense of self and a life narrative in relation to the larger social world of family and friends, education, media, work, and community. What does it mean to see ourselves as embodying particular ethical values or belonging to a certain ethnic, racial, national or religious group(s)? How do we imagine ourselves within a larger family narrative? In what ways do we view our identities as connected to and expressed by our educational and work experiences? How do we see ourselves as shaping and shaped by the popular media culture of our society? How do we think about our social responsibility to our smaller and larger human communities? Readings will include non-fiction and fiction works by authors such as Maya Angelou, James Baldwin, Andre Dubus, Anne Frank, Tim O'Brien, Flannery O'Connor, George Orwell, John Steinbeck, Amy Tan, Tobias Wolff, and Alice Walker.

Throughout the semester we will explore the craft of storytelling and the multiple ways in which we can employ the tools of fiction (e.g., character, setting, dialogue) in crafting creative non-fiction and fiction narratives. We will also examine the multiple ways in which students can build arguments from both experiential data and secondary sources.

Requirements

Course requirements include:

  • regularly attending and participating in class
  • submitting four major writing assignments as well as regular short writing exercises
  • responding in workshop (in writing and orally) to one another's writing
  • meeting with the instructor in individual conferences at least twice during the term
  • giving an oral presentation and a reading of your work at the end of the term.

The four major writing assignments (first and revised versions) are three essays and a short story (or fourth essay).

Service Learning Option

This course offers a service-learning option so that you can address some of the social and psychological issues within the community (such as poverty, health care issues, educational inequality or other issues of interest) that we read about and discuss in class. Students often find that they do their best writing when they focus on the experience of active engagement with real-world problems. The service-learning option reflects MIT's mission that the Institute "seeks to develop in each member of that community not only the ability to work wisely, creatively and effectively for the betterment of humankind, but also the passion for doing so." While service-learning is not mandatory to fulfill course requirements, it is encouraged.

Handout on the service-learning option. (PDF)

Writing Assignments

The primary goal of this course is to develop your ability to translate the material of life experience into vivid, reflective, well-organized and persuasive prose that expresses a clear perspective or central idea. By the end of the semester, you will have written about 25 pages of revised prose, as well as your regular journal writing assignments.

We define "experience" quite broadly in this class. In your writing for the course, you can draw upon a wide variety of types of experience:

  • your own life story
  • life narratives of or interviews with family members, friends, co-workers, and mentors
  • observed or witnessed experience
  • experiences that you've read or heard about in books or viewed in films or on television

In writing from experience, it is crucial that you shape your material to motivate a wider reading public. In other words, there needs to be something at stake for readers in your writing about, for example, your annual Halloween rituals or your grandmother's dedication to her job. The motive for readers might be the desire to meditate on some universal human fears, desires or developmental stages or to understand a particular social problem or issue from an individual's perspective.

There will be four major writing assignments; you will submit each assignment in a first version (not a "rough draft") and later, in revised form. In the first three creative non-fiction essay assignments, you will have the opportunity to write autobiographical (or biographical) narratives. In the first essay, you will focus on a significant aspect of personal identity. The second and third essays, in which you will connect your experiential narrative with outside research, focus on topics of your own choice. For outside research, students will draw upon both primary and secondary sources. In writing a specific essay, a student may do library research, conduct interviews, engage in field observation or do service learning. For the fourth and last writing assignment, you can choose to write either a short fiction piece or another creative non-fiction essay. These four major assignments, as well as other writing exercises in your reader/writer notebook, are at the center of the course. Each writing assignment will build upon the skills of the previous piece(s) that you've crafted. In each unit, reading assignments and preliminary writing exercises will prepare you for the essay or short fiction piece that you will be crafting. Over the course of the semester, you will revise each piece that you write. Throughout the semester, our class will focus on writing as a process of initial crafting and revising to create works that are lively, clear, engaging and meaningful to a wider audience.

You will also keep a typed reader/writer notebook of writing exercises and will give at least one oral presentation and a reading from one of your pieces of writing at the end of the term. As the semester ends, you will submit a final portfolio of all four writing assignments, first versions and revisions. The portfolio is due at the last class with the revision of the fourth piece.

Class Participation and Attendance

To foster a sense of intellectual community, this course is structured as a seminar. Throughout the term, we will be discussing the work of professional, as well as student, writers. It is crucial that you come to class prepared to offer thoughtful comments on assigned readings as well as helpful feedback to your peers. A vital, ongoing intellectual conversation - about our writing and that of published authors - is at the heart of the course. To be effective as a seminar participant, you will need to complete reading and writing tasks by their due dates. Please arrive at class on time and bring assigned texts with you.

Writing Workshop

The writing workshop - in which students respond to their peers' essays and stories - is a very important part of the course. For all four major writing assignments, we will have an in-class workshop after first versions have been submitted. We will also workshop some shorter pre-draft writing assignments. My expectation is that you will respond to each other's work seriously and critically and approach each essay or story with sensitivity, insight and imagination. For each workshop, you will be asked to read several essays or stories, discuss them in groups with your classmates and respond to each piece in the form of a individual letter to the writer. The ethical norm of our class is that all student writing (including your comments) is considered confidential; you should store other student's works-in-progress in a secure place and not discuss your peer's writing outside the classroom. This ethic enables us to develop the trust and security we need as a small writing community.

Since our class functions as a writing community and the first "public" for your essays and fiction, it is essential that you attend class faithfully. If you have more than two unexcused absences, it will affect your final grade. Under Writing Program policy, you cannot pass the course if you have more than five unexcused absences. Three latenesses (more than ten minutes) count as an absence. If you miss class because of a personal or medical emergency, please contact me (or have a dean contact me) as soon as possible. Save your absences until the later part of the term. Do not miss workshop classes except in cases of emergency; workshop absences count as two absences.

Commenting and Grading

This semester you will write four pieces, each with a different focus. Each piece will be initially submitted as a first version and later, in revised form. In reviewing first versions of your essays and stories, I will make extensive comments and suggest some options in revision. I am also available to meet with you to discuss your writing. Only the revised versions are graded. Pre-draft exercises will be acknowledged with a check and/or brief comments. It is important that you submit work on the due date. In the event of a personal or medical emergency, please contact me (or have a dean contact me) as soon as possible. Late submission of work without an extension may result in a lowered final grade. To pass the course, all required work must be submitted. Your final grade will reflect the quality of your revised essays, the thoughtfulness of your reader/writer notebook exercises, your oral presentations, your attendance, preparation for and participation in class, and your contribution as a reader for your peers.

Writing Objectives

In commenting on your writing, I will encourage you to:

  • draw upon life experience to create vivid and readable prose
  • address an intelligent, public audience in a graceful style
  • adapt the tools of fiction (setting, character, dialogue) to creative non-fiction
  • develop your ideas and narratives in an interesting, original and coherent manner
  • support your arguments with evidence and use sources creatively and appropriately
  • express yourself clearly in language that uses the conventions of grammar, punctuation, word usage and source citation
  • experiment with different narrative styles and structures
  • title your work in a thoughtful and entertaining fashion

Manuscript Form

Essays and stories should be typed, double-spaced, on one side of white paper, with margins of about an inch all around. In the upper right-hand corner of page 1, type your name, course title, the date, number and type of assignment (e.g. First Version, Essay #1), single-spaced. Your title should be in upper case, centered and placed about two double spaces beneath this block of information. Paragraph 1 should begin about two double spaces below the title; please number pages! Each essay should be submitted with two copies and a cover letter describing what you see as the strengths and weaknesses of your piece.

Sample Essay Form (PDF)

Faculty Conferences

Over the course of the semester, I am available to meet with you in conferences to discuss a particular piece or more general strategies for improving your writing. My role is as a writing coach, to offer feedback and suggest options to you as a writer, as you make decisions about how to plan and revise your work. Conferences offer a rich opportunity to extend the conversations of the seminar about strategies for successful writing. You should come well prepared to conferences to discuss your strategies for a particular essay or type of writing. You may find it helpful to see me in conference at the pre-writing stage of brainstorming and idea generation, at the stage between the first version and revision, or at the midterm point to discuss your progress for the course and your goals for the rest of the term. You can schedule conferences with me in class or through email. Two conferences are required for the semester. I will schedule one with you early in the semester; you should also plan on setting up a conference time later on in the term.

Academic Honesty and Originality

As a MIT student, member of our class and the larger community of writers, you are expected to abide by the norms of academic honesty. Borrowing someone else's language and/or ideas without proper acknowledgement is academically dishonest and a form of plagiarism, which can have serious academic consequences at MIT.

In class, we'll discuss how to acknowledge sources and how to avoid plagiarism. For different styles of citing sources (MLA, APA), see Easy Writer, The Mayfield Handbook .

Writing Center/Writing Resources

The Writing and Communication Center, also offers consultations on student writing. You may visit the Writing Center at any point in the writing process: prewriting, drafting or revising a piece of writing. In addition, The Writing and Communication Center offers advice on preparing oral presentations. It's best to schedule an appointment by calling the Center.

The Program in Writing and Humanistic Studies Web site also has information on a range of topics of interest to writing students: other writing classes, program advising, requirements for majors, minors and concentrators, and lectures and readings by authors on campus. Each spring the Program awards the Ilona Karmel Writing Prizes for student writers. More information on the Karmel prizes at the Program office.

Writing Portfolio

Please keep all four assignments (first versions and revisions) and my comments together in a writing portfolio. At the end of the semester, with your final revised piece, you will submit your portfolio, together with a final writer's letter, in which you will reflect on the themes in your writing, the ways in which your writing process and style have changed throughout the course of the semester and your plans for the future. Please note: your writing portfolio should be kept separately (in a binder with pockets or ring notebook) from your other material for class.

Publishing Your Work

Students are strongly encouraged to craft their essays and stories with a goal of publication. During the semester we will discuss strategies for planning for publication. Some MIT student publications include:

  • Counterpoint - The main college campus magazine at MIT and Wellesley, published eight times a year. Since 1991, this magazine has served both academic communities - a combined population of 15,000 - addressing topics from a broad spectrum of social, political, and cultural issues.
  • The Tech - MIT's newspaper.
  • Rune - A biannual journal of arts and letters containing original work by MIT students, staff, faculty, and affiliates.
The publication websites will include information on submission guidelines. Students can also browse through back issues of Counterpoint and Rune in the instructor's office.

 
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