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本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:洪久媄(簡介並寄信)
編輯:陳宇琦(簡介並寄信)

上課規則及課程細節

課堂上你該扮演的角色

本課程要求學生準時出席,按時繳交報告。舉個例子來說,如果你沒按時繳交小組報告,上課遲到,或者沒來上課,你的小組必須共同承擔後果。你的出席以及報告,都是課程的一部份。你應該:

  • 上課前確實預習(預習指定閱讀,完成指定作業)
  • 正面積極參與課堂/小組討論
  • 於指定日發表演講

出席率

不管你是因故或是無故缺席,對我來說沒有分別。沒來上課,就沒有貢獻。

  • 你有三次的缺席機會,無論是請病假,參加宗教活動,或是工作面試等等,別超出這三次。
  • 請假超過第三次以後,從第四次算起到第六次,每次沒來,你的學期總成績就每次乘以三分之二(譬如第四次沒來成績會從B-降到C,第五次沒來,成績就從C降到D+)。
  • 7次沒來上課,也就是說有25%的課程你沒有參與到,就是死當;即使你達到及格標準,即使你有缺課理由,都不能說情,因為你沒有達到修課要求。沒有例外
  • 你必須準時上課。遲到早退容易分心、銜接不良。如果你因修了其他的(實驗)課程而需遲到早退,請你本學期不要選這堂課。不論是遲到十分鐘以上,或是早退,都視為該堂缺課。
  • 假使你選擇了「服務學習」,參與時數沒有達到規定的話,每缺兩小時視為缺課一次(所以假設你只完成14個小時的服務學習,就算是用完了那三堂免於處罰的缺課,接下來不論是服務學習的缺時,或是違反課堂規定,皆依規定處罰)。

階段一

假如你欲取得階段一的合格標準,需在本課程之學期寫作成績得到B-以上(C級的話則視個案情形而定)。

編按:麻省理工學院課設有寫作程度要求(MIT Writing Requirement),分為三階段,預先階段,階段一及階段二。學生必須參加考試或於特定課程中取得教師指定之成績方得通過。



寫作

論文類別:

修辭分析式—此類論文探討的範圍如下:

  • 修辭情境。(讀者群為何、該作者目的為何、文章整體脈絡為何?)
  • 該作者是否夠資格?(他是該領域的專家嗎?何以見得?憑什麼相信他呢?)
  • 該作者的修辭策略。
  • 該作者的修辭技巧。
  • 就文章是否達到目而言,判別其有效性。

立場分明式—撰寫此類論文,必須針對某一議題,擇一立場,竭盡辯護。盡量利用手頭上的證據來說服讀者。然而對於立場與你不同的議論,你無需回應。

全力辯護式—選寫此類論文,必須針對某一議題,擇一立場,竭盡辯護。然而,不同於立場分明式的是,對於與你相左的立場,你必需提出解釋;至於針對你所提出的反對意見,你需盡力辯護。也就是說,直指對手的弱點,也是說服讀者的一種手段。

個人論述式—撰寫此類論文,需從自身經驗、個人觀察著手,同時需兼顧研究資料,針對某一議題,擇一立場為其辯護。此類論說文的筆觸語調較偏對話型式,感覺像是你自己在探索主題,而非事事皆知。不過你仍然得擇一立場,為其辯護,且提出有力的證據來支持自身的論點。

本課程的讀者群

你所繳交的課堂作業,讀者群不止包括你的同學,包括我本人,還包括其他優秀大學的學生和教授(像是哈佛、布朗、史丹佛、加州理工學院的某某科系學生);此用意是要提醒你記得寫報告的時候,不該只是引用課堂上討論過的東西,畢竟上述的讀者群,並沒有實際參加討論(所以你要盡力闡述你的觀點,就算是課堂上已經討論過的也一樣)。

每篇論文至少要有兩篇草稿

每篇論文至少有要兩篇草稿:

  • 小組用草稿(為用於小組討論,草稿務必完整):除了判定其是否為完整草稿,小組用草稿我不做評論。
  • 強制性修改:修改後的四篇報告我都會評分,(在我評分之前,討論小組會先給你意見回饋,你有機會以此先修改論文。如果你願意,寫作中心也可以提供上述意見回饋。)(編按:麻省理工學院設有寫作中心(The Writing and Communication Center),提供學生寫作問題諮商。)
    • 超過本人規定的原本繳交日或是寫作中心的延長的繳交日之後,便不再受理評分。
  • 選擇性修改:你願意的話,可以再次修改你的論文,以便歸檔到學習檔案卷宗。新的分數可取代前次的分數。
  • 每次的選擇性修改:
    • 至少新增250字,請用粗體字。(故強制性修改之後的每一次修改,你至少該多加250個粗體字。)
    • 本用意是讓你有機會擴充論點以深化論文,讓你在強制性修改報告繳交之後,有機會應用後來所學的修辭技巧和策略並精練風格,別做枝微末節的修改。
    • 你應該深耕既有的論點,但也可以補充新的論點以及新的研究發現。
    • 修改論文的時候,囿於當時初寫該論文時所握有的資料—此時你有更多可供選擇的資料。
  • 繳交修改版本時,務必附上當初經我評分的報告,否則我不會替修改版本打分數。

後記

論文一經修改(強制性及選擇性),即需附上全新的後記。所謂後記,就是一個你直接跟我對話的地方,修辭學應用者與修辭學應用者之間的對話。
請應用本學期所閱讀過,所討論過的概念、術語、理論、或是見解來說明你的策略。你需針對以下幾點,提出詳盡的說明(請使用相同的標題):

  • 讀者:針對你的特定議題,說明你是如何看待讀者的。你認為我們在閱讀你的文章之前,抱持的是什麼想法呢?你何以認為我們會有這種想法?
  • 目的:你的主要目的為何?又,有次要目的嗎?
  • 修辭:你用了什麼修辭策略?用了什麼修辭技巧?又用了什麼文風手法(如第一人稱或第三人稱、現在式或過去式、如何引起讀者興趣、如何創造適合提出你的論點的時機背景(Kairos)、你用了什麼意象、譬喻、什麼引人目光的文風技巧?)請詳細說明。(編按:Kairos,亞理斯多得修辭學用語,指於適當時機以適當手法提出論點,以說服讀者)
  • 建議:仔細說明小組給你什麼建議,或者是寫作中心給你什麼建議。這些建議無論你採納與否,請說明原因。
  • 自由提問:這裡是後記中唯一可以自由選擇寫或不寫的地方,如果你希望我針對某些修辭或是文風提出評論,請在這裡提出來。

作業延遲繳交原則

前往寫作中心諮商者,作業得延後繳交,如下列說明:
強制性修改:小組討論後的第一堂課即需繳交(課程表上有註明);不過如果你跟寫作中心的專業指導老師討論,繳交日期可自動延後一個禮拜,此延期不受處罰(延後繳交日期於課程表中亦有載明)。
欲跟寫作中心預約,至少要五天前與之聯繫。等到最後一刻預約才發現寫作中心預約已滿,這不是可接受的遲交理由,所以遲交作業仍得受罰。

作業遲交

作業遲交在本課程中是大禁忌。
未如期發表口頭報告該報告將視為零分。
小組用報告如不完整,每次期末成績將減少三分之一。
強制性報告每晚一天繳交,期末成績將每天減少三分之一(例如期末成績為B-,將降為C+),以為處罰。



剽竊

無心的剽竊則該篇論文零分,公然剽竊你會倒大楣。
故以下要提的觀念,請你務必瞭解:
為了維護學術的專業尊嚴,你必須註明資料來源。正如科學家要求完整而精確的實驗資料,以使他們得以重覆及檢驗該實驗,同樣地,學者及讀者也會要求你提供完整的資訊以便深究你的來源資料(坦白說他們可以據此檢驗你是否正確的引述資料)。所以在學術寫作裡,每當你要借用別人的觀點、字句、用語、甚或不常見的資訊,一定要註明出處。也就是說,絕對不准直接把別人的觀點、字句或風格直接拿來套用(網路資源也一樣),你的論文必須出自你自身之手(雖然我是鼓勵你尋求寫作中心以及小組成員的建議)。學術論文中的引述有四項原則:

  • 絕對不要改寫來源資料—請完全用你自己的話做摘要或精確引述。
  • 引述他人的話,請完整引述。使用引號,註明出處。
  • 如果你引用的資料並不常見,請註明出處。
  • 不知是否要註明出處時,就註明出處。
  • 切記:註明出處會加深你在讀者心中的可信度(ethos)。 (編按:Ethos,亞理斯多得修辭學用語,指演說人以個人特質,信譽及專業知識說服聽眾之技巧)

你可於下列連結網址找到「麻省理工學院學術誠實政策」:http://web.mit.edu/policies/10.0.html.



評分標準

評分標準如下(請注意,假如你沒有修改論文,其原始成績就只會計算兩次):
論文一:3次
論文二:3次
論文三:3次
論文四:3次
學習檔案卷宗介紹:2次
即席演講各次平均:1次
後記各次平均:2次
期末即席演講:2次
課程參與及貢獻:1次
總共是20次。



什麼是服務學習?

服務學習是一種社區服務,也是一種學術學習 — 意即,你提供服務,同時藉由將課堂所學的(如修辭學或倫理學概念)應用於實際生活中,或是反向操作,將在真實生活中應用修辭學的經驗帶入寫作和課堂討論中。選不選服務學習是看個人意願,但我強烈建議你們選擇這個項目。

服務學習跟21W.747有什麼關連??藉助修辭學,我們可以探索社群問題,找出解決方案。從一開始,修辭學應用者就為社會政治議題發言,也發表演說,撰寫文章來鼓吹社會大眾有所行動。因此,服務學習和21W.747自然關係密切。
儒家曰「不聞不若聞之,聞之不若見之,見之不若知之,知之不若行之。學至于行之而止矣。」(編按:原句I read and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand無精確相合之中文資料,上句取其意近,出於荀子儒效篇)。而服務學習即是「做中學」,在更深層實用的層面上理解修辭學,也能用來達成修辭學教育的初衷:培養更多積極參與、具有見地的公民。許多非營利團體之所以會成立就是要幫忙處理社會問題。
本學期你可以選擇為一非營利團體服務(像是到無家者庇護中心、做高中生的指導教師、替非營利團體做其指定的研究、為該非營利團體撰寫文件、為該非營利團體寫網頁等等)。每週你應該安排二到三個小時的服務時間,總計十週;這段期間,你有下列幾件事可以做:

  • 觀察。
  • 蒐集資料。
  • 分析該團體之活動及內部的互動。
  • 在你逐漸熟悉融入該團體的同時,分析其內部或是其文宣中所使用的修辭。

你願意的話,也可以團體合作的方式為同一個團體服務(不過你們的報告必須個別撰寫個別繳交)。 欲知有哪些非營利團體需要義工,你可以:

  • 上這個義工網站查查看:http://www.volunteersolutions.org/mit/volunteer/index.tcl,點選右邊的 「義工」連結,而後直接與該團體接觸。
  • 亦可尋求麻省理工學院公共服務中心(public Service Center: PSC) 的諮詢。網址:(http://web.mit.edu/mitpsc)。該中心與許多非營利團體有接觸,是很棒的資源。
  • 如果你已經為某非營利團體服務,也可以繼續。

服務學習會增加21W.747的工作量嗎?很顯然地,服務學習在學期中需要投入20至30個小時的心力,不論你是到場幫忙還是純粹為他們服務(假如你是替該團體作網頁,你可能是在學校做的,而不是到該團體的場地做的)。你花的這些心力,可以拿來:

  • 當作你論文四的主題及主要參考資源,這樣可以節省你很多研究的時間。
  • 當作期末演講的經驗依據(也可節省研究時間)
  • 所以這個問題的答案是:不會。服務學習並不會增加你太多工作量,反而會豐富你的課外經驗,這些是你平時難能體驗到的。

我該怎麼選擇服務學習呢?請尋求公共服務中心的幫忙,找一個適合你的非營利團體。而後與該營利團體聯絡以確立你的服務方案(規劃),再把這個規劃好的方案提出來給我。




Policies and Course Details

Your Role in Class

This course requires your attendance and on-time production. For example, if you do not have your essay ready for small group workshop or if you are late or absence for a workshop, all the students in your group suffer. You and your writing are part of the course. You are expected:

  • to be prepared for each class (having read and thought about the assigned reading, having written assignments completed).
  • to participate meaningfully and often in class discussions and workshops.
  • to give your speeches on the days assigned.

Attendance

I do not distinguish between excused and unexcused cuts. If you're not in class, you are not contributing:

  • There are 3 penalty-free cuts that you should save for illness, religious reasons, job interviews, and the like.
  • Each additional cut from the 4th to the 6th will reduce your final course grade by 2/3 (e.g., a B- becomes a C with the 4th cut, a D+ with the 5th).
  • A total of 7 cuts mean that you've missed more than 25% of the course and will result in automatic failure regardless of your average or the reason for the absences because you will not have fulfilled the course requirements-- no exceptions.
  • You must be on time for class. Late arrivals and early departures cause distractions and gaps. If other classes or labs will necessitate your arriving late or leaving early, do not take this class this semester. Being more than 10 minutes late or having to leave class early will count as one of your 3 free cuts.
  • If you select the Service Learning option, not completing 2 hours of your service will count as 1 cut (so if you only do only 14 hours of service, you have exhausted your 3 free cuts and penalties will start accruing for each additional cut at either your non-profit or in the classroom).

Phase I

If Phase I is an issue for you, you will pass Phase I of the Writing Requirement with a semester grade of B- (a grade of C will require a case-by-case determination).



Written Work

Types of Essays

Rhetorical Analysis-- In such an essay, you discuss such things as

  • the rhetorical situation (who was the intended audience, what was the author's main purpose, what was the context?)
  • the credentials of the author (is this author an expert about the topic of his/her essay? What makes him/her an expert? Why should we believe this person?)
  • the rhetorical strategies used by the author.
  • the stylistic devices used by the author.
  • the effectiveness (or lack thereof) of the text in terms of accomplishing its purposes.

Position Paper-- In such an essay, you take a position on a controversial topic and prove it as completely as you can. Use all the types of evidence that you have available to convince your readers. You do not have the responsibility, however, of answering or responding to positions that disagree with yours.

Full-fledged Argument-- In such an essay, you take a position on a controversial topic and prove it as completely as possible. Unlike the position paper, however, you must explain the major positions that disagree with yours, and you must answer opponents' major objections to your position and its supporting points. In other words, part of the way you convince your readers is by showing the weaknesses in the opponents' own arguments.

Persuasive Personal Essay-- In such an essay, you draw upon your personal experiences and observations as well as upon research to discover and defend your position on a controversial topic. The tone here is more conversational, and there is a sense of your exploring the topic rather than "having all the answers"- but you still need to take a position and defend it and you still need to present evidence to support your points.

Your Readers for this class

For all your essays for this class, your readers include not only your classmates and me, but also an equal number of readers and professors from other comparable universities (e.g., students majoring in who-knows-what at Harvard, Brown, Stanford, CalTech)-- the point of having these readers is to help you remember that you can't simply allude to something discussed in our classroom because those additional readers weren't here (so you have to explain your points, even ones that we might have covered in class discussions).

Each essay has at least 2 drafts

Your essays must have at least 2 drafts:

  • Workshop Draft: (must be complete for workshop): I do not comment on the Workshop Draft except to give credit if it is a complete draft.
  • Mandatory Revision: I grade the Mandatory Revision of each of those 4 essays (after you've had the chance to improve the essay after receiving feedback from the workshop and, if you wish, from the Center).
    • Mandatory Revisions will not be accepted for grades after the due date or the due-date-with-the-Writing-Center-extension.
  • Optional Revision(s): If you wish, you may revise any or all of your 4 essays once and yet again for the Portfolio. Revised grades replace the earlier grades.
  • Each Optional Revision
    • must have a minimum of 250 additional words that are boldfaced (so, every time you revise beyond the Mandatory Revision, you add an extra 250 new boldfaced words).
    • The point is to deepen your essays by adding ideas, to use whatever new rhetorical devices and strategies we have covered since the due date of the Mandatory Revision, and to refine the style, not simply add a word here and there.
    • You should develop your existing ideas more fully, but you might also add a new idea and/or do additional research.
    • Do NOT limit your revision to the information that you had available at the time you wrote the original essay-- you now have more information available.
  • You must always submit the original corrected-by-me copy of the essay with any Revision-- otherwise I will not grade the Revision.

Postwrites

Each revision (Mandatory and Optional) must be accompanied by a new typed Postwrite.
A Postwrite is a place where you to talk to me, rhetor to rhetor.
Use the concepts, terminology, theories, and insights that we've read about and discussed throughout the semester to explain your strategies, etc. Explain in detail the following (use these headings):

  • Readers: Explain how you see your readers in terms of your particular topic. What did you think our attitude(s) toward your topic and thesis would be before we read your essay? What makes you think we have such attitudes toward your topic?
  • Purpose: What is your primary purpose in this essay? Are there secondary purposes as well?
  • Rhetoric: What rhetorical strategies, rhetorical techniques, and stylistic approaches did you use (e.g., did you use first or third person, present or past tense, what did you do to catch readers' interest and to establish kairos, did you use any images or figurative language, any attention-catching stylistic devices)? Be specific.
  • Advice: Explain in detail the advice you received from the workshop and (if applicable) from the Writing Center. Explain your reasons for following or not following particular pieces of advice.
  • Optional Questions: This is the only optional section of the Postwrite- if there are specific aspects of rhetoric or style that you wish me to comment upon, please indicate them here.

Extensions for Written Work

Extensions with Visits to Writing and Communication Center:
Mandatory Revisions are due the first class after the workshop (the date is noted on syllabus).
However, if you visit the Writing Center to discuss your Mandatory Revision with one of the Center's professional Writing Consultants, you automatically receive up to a 1-week penalty-free extension beyond that due date (this extension-date is also noted on the syllabus).
Call the Center at least 5 days ahead of time to book an appointment. Waiting until the last minute and discovering that the Center is all booked up is not an acceptable excuse and the late penalty will be enforced.

Late Work

Late work is a serious problem in this class.
Oral Presentations will receive a 0 if not given on time.
Each Workshop Draft that is not complete for workshop reduces your final course grade by 1/3.
Each Mandatory Revision that is late will cause your final course grade to be penalized by 1/3 (e.g., a B- for the course becomes a C+) for each day it is late.



Plagiarism

Incidental plagiarism results in a zero for the essay, and blatant plagiarism can result in disaster.
So it's crucial to understand the concept.
Academic and professional honesty requires that you give credit where credit is due.
Just as scientists demand complete and accurate information about experiments so that they can duplicate and check those experiments, so scholars and readers demand complete information so they can explore in more depth what your sources said (and, frankly, so they can check your accuracy in reporting what those sources said). In all academic writing, then, you must give citations each time you use someone else's ideas, words, phrasing, or unusual information. In other words, never take credit for someone else's words, ideas, or style (this includes material found on the Web). Your essays should be your own work (although you are encouraged to seek writing advice from the Writing Center and from your small groups). There are 4 guidelines for using sources in your academic writing:

  • There is never a good reason to paraphrase a source-- either summarize it in your own words or quote it exactly.
  • When you quote, quote exactly, use quotation marks, and cite the source.
  • When you use information that might not be considered common knowledge, cite the source.
  • When in doubt about whether or not to give a citation, always give a citation.
  • Remember, citing sources enhances your ethos with your readers.

MIT's academic honesty policy can be found at the following link: http://web.mit.edu/policies/10.0.html.



Grading

Your grade will be determined as follows (note, if you don't revise an essay, its original grade simply counts twice):
Essay #1 counts 3 times
Essay #2 counts 3 times
Essay #3 counts 3 times
Essay #4 counts 3 times
Portfolio Introduction counts 2 times
Average of Impromptus, etc. count 1 time
Average of Postwrites count 2 times
Final Extemporaneous Speech counts 2 times
Class Dedication and Participation count 1 time
Total = 20



What is Service Learning?

Service Learning is an approach that combines some service to the community with academic learning-- i.e., the service is what you provide while the learning is what you discover by applying class material (e.g., rhetorical and ethical concepts) to "real-life" situations and by reflecting, both in writing and in class discussions, on the experience of using rhetoric in the "real world." It is optional but strongly recommended for this course.

How Does Service Learning Fit into 21W.747? Rhetoric helps people explore and solve community problems. Since the beginning, rhetors have spoken out on social and political issues, and they have made speeches and written essays to persuade society to take action. Service Learning is thus a natural fit for 21W.747.
As Confucius says, "I read and I forget; I see and I remember: I do and I understand." Service Learning is a way of "doing" and hence "understanding" rhetoric on a more profound and practical level. It is also a way of fulfilling the original goals of rhetorical education, namely, creating more involved and knowledgeable members of a community. Many non-profit organizations exist to help deal with social problems.
This semester you may select a non-profit organization to work with/for (e.g., working at a shelter for the homeless, tutoring a high school student, doing research that the nonprofit requires, writing a document for that non-profit, creating a web page for a non-profit). You should dedicate 2-3 hours/week for 10 weeks to the project. During this time you will do some or all of the following:

  • observe.
  • gather data.
  • analyze site activity and interactions.
  • analyze the uses of rhetoric on site and/or in the nonprofit's publicity etc. as you learn about and become part of a new community.

If you wish, you may work in teams at a site (but your final documents presented to me must be individual efforts).
To find non-profits who want volunteers and/or help, you may

  • Consult the volunteer Web site for ideas: http://www.volunteersolutions.org/mit/volunteer/index.tcl and click on "volunteer" link on the right side, then contact the non-profit directly.
  • Or consult MIT's Public Service Center (PSC) (http://web.mit.edu/mitpsc); the PSC has contacts with several non-profit organizations- this is a great resource.
  • Or you may continue a service project with which you are already involved.

Does Service Learning Add to the Amount of Work I Do for 21W.747? Obviously SL has a time commitment of 20-30 hours during the semester of working at a site or for the non-profit (e.g., if you are designing a Web page, you might be doing that here at MIT rather than on site). To make up for that commitment,

  • Your 4th essay will use your SL experience as the topic and major source of information and hence will save you research time.
  • Your final speech may be about your SL experience (thus saving you some more research time).
  • So the answer to the question is "No, it will not add significantly to the amount on work that you do for 21W.747, but the workload will include some out-of-class experience that you would not otherwise have."

How Do I Select the SL Option? Consult the staff at Public Service Center to find an appropriate non-profit. Then contact that non-profit to set up your project. Then submit a Proposal for Service Learning Option.




 
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